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We provide writing services on any project topic in NCE, OND, HND, BSC, MSc, PhD and Biblical Studies and Theology project topics.
Also, we handle all kinds of academic research works and ready-made complete project materials to guide final year project students and researchers as well as Biblical Studies and Theology project topics and materials.
EASY-WAY AND TIPS ON PROJECT TOPICS, PROJECT MATERIAL AND PROJECT WRITING FOR PROJECT STUDENTS
One of the most important aspects of any research study is communication of the results to other researchers. This important aspect can be accomplished through a well-written report. You start most reports with the title. The title is the label given to the report. You should write it in such a way that the reader could easily tell what the study is all about, even without reading the whole report. The title should not be too long. After the title comes the abstract. The abstract should contain important ideas of the study.
The abstract is a brief summary of the whole study containing the main steps in the study, statement of purpose, the types of subjects, brief statement of design, data analysis, results and findings. Usually, the abstract should not be more than 120 – 150 words. The research report, whether it is a thesis, dissertation, or short term paper or report, usually follows a well standardized pattern. The following outline represents the usual sequence of writing a research report
HOW TO CHOOSE A PROJECT TOPIC HOW THAT IS RESEARCHABLE
To begin with, by definition, a research or project topic can be defined as a subject that a research project intends or sets out to explore or discuss in details.
There is no doubt that, choosing a project topic is one of the most difficult part of research process. The choice of your project or research topic is the very first step to writing presentable and successful of undergraduate project, dissertation or thesis.
Notably, when choosing a project topic, many important factors to consider includes; the area of interest, the availability of related research material, the relevance of the propose choosen project material and possibility of having access to the required data for conducting the study.
While choosing a project topic, another important factor to consider is the scope or delimitation of the research work you intends to carry out. (This can be known by some researchers as the case study area).
Importantly, for your project topic to be researchable, make sure it contains an independent variable and dependent variable.
Generally, a variable in research simply refers to a person, place, thing, or phenomenon that you are trying to measure in some way. The best way to understand the difference between a dependent and independent variable is that the meaning of each is implied by what the words tell us about the variable you are using.
Dependent variable is the variable that depends on other factors that are measured. These variables are expected to change as a result of an experimental manipulation of the independent variable or variables. It is the presumed effect. Whereas, independent variable is the variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables you are trying to measure. It refers to the condition of an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator. It is the presumed cause.
What to know about Independent and Dependent Variables in your project topics
- The independent variable is varied and has a presumed cause on another variable, the dependent variable. In an experiment, it is the manipulated variable. It is the variable under the control of the experimenter. In a non-experimental study, it is the variable that as a logical effect on the dependent variable.
- The dependent variable’s effect alter concomitantly with changes or variations in the independent variable.
- An active variable is manipulated. Manipulations mean that the experimenter has control over how the values change.
- An attribute variable is measured and cannot be manipulated. A variable that cannot be manipulated is one where the experimenter has no control over the values of the variable.
- A continuous variable is capable of taking on an ordered set of values within a certain range. Between two values there are an infinite number of other values. These variables reflect at least a rant order.
- Categorical variables belong to a kind of measurement where objects are assigned to a subclass or subset. The subclasses are distinct and non-overlapping. All objects put into the same category are considered to have the same characteristic(s).
- Latent variables are un-observable entities. They are assumed to underlie observed variables.
- Intervening variables are constructs that account for internal unobservable psychological processes that account for behaviour. It cannot be seen but is inferred from behaviour.
SOURCES OF RESEARCH/ PROJECT TOPICS
Research problems can be sourced from any of the various sections of education as a discipline. Occasionally, some problems cut across other disciplines and call for interdisciplinary research, e.g. education and sociology, (e.g. youths and drug abuse), education and religion, (e.g. integrating Qur’anic and Almajirai children into conventional schools), etc. In practice, sourcing for research problems/topics could be done through the following procedures:
- Professional Literature: to be able to conduct a good research work and effectively utilize the work, the researcher needs to consult relevant textbooks, magazines, dailies, gazettes, newsletters, research project, thesis, dissertations, Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Psychological Abstracts, Education Research Information Centre (ERIC), Journal of Educational Research and Educational Journals that are published in Nigeria such as Journal of Theoretical and applied Research, Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (JSTAN), Journal of Curriculum Organisation of Nigeria, etc and some other sources that could be consulted. A researcher reading the above reports can identify meaningful research problems.
- Theory: The researcher can examine and use relevant educational theories. Learning theories or counseling theories, for example, can serve as a basis for identifying worthwhile research problems. Theories normally give rise to deductions that need to be tested. Making deductions from theories may not be very easy for a researcher. However, and more often than not, when identified problems through this source are utilized, they may likely lead to other problems or an extension of another theories demanding for new information or investigation.
- Personal Experience: Students in tertiary institutions such as Colleges of Education and Faculty of Education in the universities often encounter problems that require investigation in their chosen fields of studies. Majority of the students more often than not use the field work, personal experiences to identify research problems while some abuse the information, data, documents made available to them to blacklist schools and their educational programmes. Students could have also personal experiences during lectures, seminars and workshops. Serious students, through careful observations in his chosen field of study and interest, can identify a problem worthy of investigation. For instance, through such experience, a science student may decide to investigate the effect of the use of mother tongue in the teaching of integrated science in the junior secondary school. If on the other hand, he may wish to compare the relative effectiveness of medium of instruction — English and Yoruba — in the teaching of integrated science at the junior secondary school level.
- Previous Studies: previous research reports can be useful from programmes such as NCE, BA. Ed/B.Sc. Ed, M.Ed, M.Phil., Ph.D and other published research reports. The projects are usually concluded by making recommendations and suggestions for further research. Such recommendations and suggestions can usually provide bases for you to select research problems. Also you can decide to replicate a previous research study which you consider significant. However, such replication of a study is good if the findings of the previous study are controversial or invalid, or its methodology is faulty or the need for changes in time and location.
- Professional Contact: a researcher can identify a researchable topic through contact with his professional colleagues. Also, membership of professional association and regular attendance at meetings, symposia, conferences, seminars and workshops organized by such professional bodies as Science teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN), National Association of Professional Educators (NAPED), Social Studies of Nigeria (SOSAN), Nigeria Association of Educational Media and Technology (NAEMT), and so on, would assist you as a prospective researcher in identifying good researchable topics. However, some researchers abuse some of the above-listed points negatively by replicating the work of other researchers (Plagiarism).
- Academic Adviser/Project Supervisor: the academic adviser or project supervisor can be a source of research topic, if contacted (Koleoso, 1999).
FORMAT OF WRITING A RESEARCH/PROJECT REPORT
- Preliminary Section
Table of Contents
List of figures (if any)
- Main Body of the Report
Problem Statement or Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Problem
Justification of the Study
Major Study Assumptions
Hypotheses or Specific Research Questions (or both)
Delimitation (or Scope and Delimitations)
Definition of Key (or Operational) Terms.
iii. Review of Related Literature
State previous research efforts in this area. Area of similarities and/or dissimilarities as well as possib7ie input to be drawn for the present study.
Definition of Population
Procedure for Collecting Data
Pilot Study (if any)
- Findings and Analysis
- Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Restatement of the Problem
Description of Procedures Used
Major Findings and Conclusions
Recommendations for Further Research.
vii. Reference Section
HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH/ PROJECT PROPOSAL
Every activity needs thorough planning. When you have thought out a research problem you must plan how the research will be carried out. This plan which is like the building plan or blueprint to a builder is called a Research Proposal OR Project Proposal.
The proposal provides a basis for the evaluation of the work and demonstrates clearly that the researches know what he wants to do to arrive at the solution of the problems at hand. It affords him also, a systematic plan or procedure to follow
There are various formats for the research proposal and it varies from Institution to Institution. However, most formats include the following
On a single, separate page, prepare a summary of the proposal to indicate its objectives and procedures.
– Background to the study
– Purpose of the study
– Statement of the problem
– Significance of the study (Implications and Application)
– Operational definition of terms
– Assumptions of the study
– Limitations of the study
– Delimitation of the study
II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
– Literature Review
– Appraisal/Summary of Literature review.
IV RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES
V RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
– Research Design
– Subjects (Population and sample; Sampling Technique)
– Instruments (construction and administration)
– Validity and reliability of Instrument
– Method of data analysis
– Statistical Procedure to be used.
VI BUDGET AND TIME SCHEDULE
TIPS ON EASY PROJECT DEFENCE SUCCESS
Just imagine a project defence room where you are presenting your research work in such a fabulous way, and your panel members just can’t stop nodding, gazing at you with their mouths wide open and clapping non-stop for you…It is just an imagination, so wake up! Put more work to it by reading this article, apply it and pray your panel members do not turn your project defence to project attack!
Project defence has come to stay, and the only way to graduate in Nigerian universities is to at least defend what you have written (or copied and paste) in a convincing manner. Gone are the days when you could just copy and paste an article from the internet and dump for your school. Our Nigerian school system is changing from dumping grounds to speech oriented institutions, which means that you must be good at presentations in order to scale through. At times students confuse themselves with content of their work. The truth is that it is better to be more confident with a poor content, than to be un-able to defend an excellent research work.
I am going to give out some useful tips and tricks on how you can have an awesome project defence and presentation. In order to make reading this article more pleasurable, I am going to give tips on how what to do before the defence day, on the defence day, and inside the defence room. So enjoy!
TIPS TO APPLY BEFORE YOUR DEFENCE DAY
First before your project defence, you must ensure you have a romantic relationship with your project topic and the whole content. When I say ‘romantic relationship’, I mean your research topic or research thesis must be of great interest to you. If your topic is too difficult or it was imposed on you by your project supervisor, you better start loving the topic or better still; look for a way to get it changed for you. In my little experience, I have discovered that students who hate their topics usually have problems flowing in the defence room, and it can mean bad for you. One trick to choose a nice research topic is by looking for subjects that you love talking about. If you’re a car freak, you should be considering topics like ‘the impact of official cars on employee productivity’. You would be amazed how this simple trick will go a long way in helping you.
Second, do adequate research on your topic. Before defending or presenting your project, you should source for similar materials on your topic. Focus on how the problem was identified and addressed. Do not dream of having an awesome presentation if you do not know common terminologies associated with your topic. Identify your keywords, variables, background of the study, history of the study and all the variables before your defence date. If you writing on ‘employee motivation and its impact on productivity, you should be able to know your two variables-‘employee motivation’ and ‘productivity’.
Third, know your motivation for the study or research. Most final year students in Nigeria defending their projects do not perform well because, they fail to identify their motives for the study. The motivation for your study is probably the first answer to numerous questions you may be asked in the defence hall. Before a research is undertaken, there is usually a problem to solve. The desire to solve that problem becomes your motivation for the study. Please do not use money, or the need to graduate as motivations for your study. Motivation for the study is best applied in questions like ‘why undertake this study’? ‘Tell us about your work’?
Fourth, know your strength as well as your weaknesses. Knowing your strengths and weaknesses will help you prepare a backup plan in case the direction of the defence changed in an unfavourable way.
Fifth, discuss with professionals in your research field and do group discussions with friends. Make your friends your panel members, and defend in front of them. Tell them to criticize and ask numerous questions. With this little training you will be tuning your mind set for what a defence room will look like. You can also seek professional help.
WHAT TO DO ON THE DAY OF DEFENCE
On the day of defence, a lot of students panic and some may even forget their project topics. Just apply the following tricks and tips and you will be just fine!
First, rehearse with friends again. Look for people to discuss your project with all over again. This will help you remember your key points.
Second, develop good self esteem and confidence. Before you enter the defence room, make use of some good self esteem! Think well about yourself, and have in mind that these professors and senior lecturers you are going to face are human beings that do not know everything. So be in control. See yourself as someone going to lecture a bunch of people that do not know much. Remember 90% of your fears cannot be seen at first, unless you start showing it. Project defense can be very easy once you completely understand your research work and are prepared for the questions. During the defense, the panel of assessors will ask you questions to test your knowledge of the research subject matter, depth of your work, the results and conclusions you arrived at.
The questions that would be asked will fall within these four categories:
-What is your research project about?
-What did you do?
-What did you find?
-Why does that matter?
Below are some of the likely questions you will be asked in a project defense room. Study these questions and suggested answers. You can also ask previous students in your department and your supervisor to guide you.
COMMON PROJECT DEFENSE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
- WHY DID YOU CHOOSE THIS TOPIC
This might be the first question you will be asked, and you need to have a good response. You should talk about the motivations for the study. Talk about the research problem you wanted to address which made you embark on the study.
- BRIEFLY, EXPLAIN WHAT YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT IS ALL ABOUT?
To respond to this question, you need to fully understand your research project. Basically, be able to repeat your abstract.
- WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Here you briefly state the specific aspects of your project topic that was covered.
- WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY?
To answer this question, you will need to state how your research work will help other researchers, educators, organizations(like the case study used), practitioners and policymakers.
- DID YOU BRIDGE ANY GAP FROM YOUR STUDY?
Here you should talk about how your study addressed the existing problems/concerns that made you carry out the research.
- WHAT ARE YOUR RESEARCH VARIABLES?
This question is asked in order to find out if you really know what your research project is all about. Explain your independent and dependent variable(s) to show them you really grasp the concept of your research topic. Identify the variables in your project topic, define and explain the.
- YOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This is usually the chapter three of your project report. To respond to this question, you should briefly state the research design procedure you adopted for the research. Talk about the data collection methods and sampling techniques employed in the research. This is where you state the reason(s) for the choice of research methodology used. For example, if you used the survey research method, you can state reasons such as: no interviewer bias, cost-effective, it enabled you (the researcher) to collect information from the sample without influencing the population of the study e.t.c
- WHY DO YOU THINK YOUR RESEARCH IS RELIABLE
To answer this question, simply tell your audience/panel of assessors that the threats to research reliability (which are participants error, participant bias, research error, and researcher bias) did not occur during the research. Or you can simply say that you made sure the threats were reduced to the barest minimum.
- WHY DO YOU THINK YOUR RESEARCH IS VALID?
To answer this question, simply tell your audience/panel of assessors that the findings from your study can be generalized to other relevant settings, group or case study.
- IN WHAT WAY(S) DOES YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT CONTRIBUTES TO KNOWLEDGE?
This question is similar to your significance of the study. You should talk about how your research is aimed at addressing a problem that was not addressed by previous researchers in your field of study. You should also briefly state how your project will advance understanding in your research field.
- WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS ENCOUNTERED
No research project is perfect. It is common for at least one limitation to be identified. To answer this question, talk about the weaknesses that were out of your control. You can talk about how weaknesses such as the short time frame for the research, lack of research studies/materials on the topic, lack of available data, the combination of lectures, exam and project research, limited sample size and selection, e.t.c impacted the analysis of your research data.
- SHOW US HOW YOUR SOFTWARE WORKS (FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE STUDENTS)
Make sure you are familiar with how the software works. Also, be sure that there are no errors in the software. Go ahead and show the panel of assessors how the software functions. You can also show them some records which you entered previously.
- WHAT SOURCE OF DATA WAS EMPLOYED FOR THE RESEARCH?
Here, you simply state the data collection methods that were used in the study. You should state if primary sources such as questionnaires, interview, observation OR secondary sources such as textbooks, journals, articles, e.t.c were used. If you combined primary and secondary sources, briefly talk about it.
- WHAT ARE YOUR FINDINGS?
Show the descriptive results from the study in a convincing and clear style. Make sure your findings refer to your research objectives/questions.
- BASED ON YOUR FINDINGS WHAT ARE YOUR RECOMMENDATIONS/SUGGESTIONS?
This is where you talk about the importance and implications of your findings from three levels namely:
- Research (various ways other researchers can improve or refine the study)
- Theory (the new contributions that you are adding to the body of knowledge) and
- Practice (how the information gotten from your study can make practice better, improve the operational procedures, solve problems, improve policy making e.t.c).
PROJECT TOPICS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS OF STUDY
NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES PROJECT TOPICS
|1. University of Ibadan Project Topics|
|2. University of Lagos Project Topics|
|3. University of Nigeria Project Topics|
|4. Obafemi Awolowo University Project Topics|
|5. Ahmadu Bello University Project Topics|
|6. University of Ilorin Project Topics|
|7. University of Port Harcourt Project Topics|
|8. Lagos State University Project Topics|
|9. University of Benin Project Topics|
|10. University of Abuja Project Topics|
|11. Adekunle Ajasin University Project Topics|
|12. Federal University of Technology, Minna Project Topics|
|13. Rivers State University Project Topics|
|14. Federal University, Lokoja Project Topics|
|15. Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Project Topics|
|16. University of Jos Project Topics|
|17. Federal University of Technology, Akure Project Topics|
|18. Federal University, Oye-Ekiti Project Topics|
|19. Taraba State University Project Topics|
|20. Kwara State University Project Topics|
|21. Bayero University Kano Project Topics|
|22. University of Calabar Project Topics|
|23. Federal University of Technology, Owerri Project Topics|
|24. Olabisi Onabanjo University Project Topics|
|25. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Project Topics|
|26. Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Project Topics|
|27. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Project Topics|
|28. Enugu State University of Science and Technology Project Topics|
|29. University of Uyo Project Topics|
|30. Usmanu Danfodio University Project Topics|
|31. University of Maiduguri Project Topics|
|32. Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti Project Topics|
|33. Osun State University Project Topics|
|34. Federal University, Dutsin-Ma Project Topics|
|35. Delta State University, Abraka Project Topics|
|36. Abia State University Project Topics|
|37. Federal University, Lafia Project Topics|
|38. Ebonyi State University Project Topics|
|39. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Project Topics|
|40. Tai Solarin University of Education Project Topics|
|41. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Project Topics|
|42. Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Project Topics|
|43. Ambrose Alli University Project Topics|
|44. Nasarawa State University Project Topics|
|45. Kaduna State University Project Topics|
|46. Niger Delta University Project Topics|
|47. Imo State University Project Topics|
|48. The Technical University Project Topics|
|49. Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Project Topics|
|50. Edo University Project Topics
|51. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Project Topics|
|52. Cross River University of Technology Project Topics|
|53. University of Medical Sciences Project Topics|
|54. Benue State University Project Topics|
|55. Akwa Ibom State University Project Topics|
|56. Federal University of Petroleum Resources Project Topics|
|57. Yusuf Maitama Sule University Kano Project Topics|
|58. Federal University, Dutse Project Topics|
|59. University of Agriculture, Makurdi Project Topics|
|60. Kogi State University Project Topics|
|61. Modibbo Adama University of Technology Project Topics|
|62. Gombe State University Project Topics|
|63. Federal University, Otuoke Project Topics|
|64. Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Project Topics|
|65. Yobe State University Project Topics|
|66. Federal University, Gusau Project Topics|
|67. Kano University of Science and Technology Project Topics|
|68. Sokoto State University Project Topics|
|69. Adamawa State University Project Topics|
|70. University of Africa Project Topics|
|71. Federal University, Birnin Kebbi Project Topics|
|72. Bauchi State University Project Topics|
|73. Federal University, Gashua Project Topics|
|74. Plateau State University Project Topics|
|75. Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Project Topics|
|76. Moshood Abiola University of Science and Technology, Abeokuta Project Topics|
|77. Federal University, Wukari Project Topics|
|78. Federal University, Kashere Project Topics|
|79. Sule Lamido University Project Topics|
|80. Nigerian Maritime University, Okerenkoko Project Topics|
|81. Ondo State University of Science and Technology Project Topics|
|82. Eastern Palm University Project Topics|
|83. Borno State University Project Topics|
|84. Gombe State University of Science and Technology Project Topics|
|85. Zamfara State University Project Topics|