Agricultural Science Project Topics

Availability and Utilization of Improvised Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools

Availability and Utilization of Improvised Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated Availability and Utilization of Improvised Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. The findings revealed that a significant relationship exists between availability of improvised materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science. It was found that a significant relationship exists between utilization of improvised materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science.

The findings further revealed that students taught using instructional charts performed significantly better than those taught without any instructional materials. Consequently, the null hypotheses formulated in the study were rejected in favour of the alternatives.

 

Availability and Utilization of Improvised Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

The application of instructional material to then teaching – learning process as a supportive device to information from texts and verbal presentation has gained grounds in educational practices. The selection and procurement of instructional materials are strictly guided by the content of the curriculum and the teacher’s method of instructional delivery.

Instructional material are those device developed or acquired by the teacher to assist or facilitate the process of imparting knowledge and skills to the learners with in an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). Teachers often make use of text book, charts, models, graphics, and regalia and locally sourced improvised materials to motivate learning.

Instructional materials are of several kinds. They are classified on the basis of the type of sense they appeal to printed materials such as text books, laboratory manuals, work books, cartoons, photographs, maps, charts, microfilm, journals, newspapers and model specimens are visual aids. Those that stimulate the sense of hearing, such as radio, tape, recorders, compact discs, record player etc are classified as audio materials. Instructional materials which appeal to both the sense of hearing and sight are called audio- visual materials such as television, video tapes and player, compact disc (UCDS), still or motion pictures with sound tracts.

However, the teaching – learning process in schools is a complex activity which unites together processes such as instructing and training with the over all intention of getting learners not only to acquire knowledge and skills, but to acquire them in a manner which involves understanding and evaluation of the underlying rationale for what is presented as learning  materials (Olisaemeka, 2007). Accordingly, the success of the teaching – learning process depends to a large extent on availability and effective utilization of both standard and improvised Instructional materials to facilitate Instruction.

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Learning is facilitated when the learners make use of at least three of the sense organs namely, seeing, hearing and touching. This agrees with popular Chinese proverb that states: I hear – I forget, I see – I remember, I do – I understand (Ogwuazor, 2008).   The need for improvisation in the absence of standard materials or real objects cannot be over – emphasized. Improvisation occurs when the teacher on the ground of inadequacy or lack of standard. Instructional materials, makes a step or move to develop, construct, design and utilize alternative material to aid his/her Instructional delivery and facilitate students understanding of concept taught (Ogunsaju 2007).

It is an essential innovation in the educational process. Therefore, it is indisputable that the realization of the objective of any teaching learning encounter will be an illusion in the absence of Instructional material and where the teacher fails to improvise.

Improvised material therefore, plays a significant role as substitute for real object or materials in facilitating effective lesson delivery.  An effective teaching is one where the objectives of the lesson been achieved, that is where students have learnt (Isola, 2010).

There are times teachers teach but no learning takes place. This because something was missing that makes the students not to understand the lesson and therefore learning did not take place. That constituted a wasted time and energy. Students at the secondary school level have invariably had excessive use of words to convey meaning when Instructional materials are not used. Student at this need a rich store of concrete sensory experiences to aid understanding of what they learned. The development of modern technology, science and the richness of the environment have placed within the reach of teachers a vast array of improvised materials to provide for effective teaching and learning.

Agricultural science as a science and vocational discipline that needs a variety of Instructional materials and where standard materials are not readily available, the teacher should source for alternative through improvisation to enhance his teaching effectiveness and facilitate students understanding of lessons taught especially, those lessons that have practical components. This will go along way in improving student’s academic performance in the subject.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the major challenges of education in the 21st century is how the society may adequately provide functional education to its ever increasing population. This problem assumes staggering dimension in a developing country such as Nigeria where implementation of education programmes have yielded little results. While government does its best to allocate available resources to the competing sectors of the economy, the wise management of these resources both human and materials for effective attainment of set goods objective is often a formidable task.

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However, Agricultural science cannot be taught effectively without relevant instructional material if set objectives must be realized. Apparently, It has been observed with dismay that most Agricultural science teachers are still teaching the subject verbally without Instructional materials, and they have made no effort to improvise where standard materials are not readily available. This development has serious consequences on the effective teaching and learning of the subject. The improvisation of Instructional material has become a matter of utmost necessity for effective teaching of education.

There is no doubt therefore, that effective teaching of Agricultural science vis – a – vis improvement in students academic performance will be a mirage if scarce materials are not improvised and skillfully utilized by teachers. It is against background therefore, that this study “Availability and utilization of improvised Instructional materials for effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area” became imperative.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to examine the availability and utilization of improvised Instructional materials and the effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary school in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  • Examine the relationship between availability of improvised Instructional material and the effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
  • Determine the relationship between utilization of improvised Instructional materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.
  • Assess the academic performance of students taught using Instructional chart as improvised materials and those taught with out any Instructional materials in Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

 

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised inline with the specific objectives of the study:

  • To what extent are the availability of improvised Instructional materials and the effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area?
  • How does utilization of improvised Instructional materials affect effective teaching of Agricultural science secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area?
  • To what extent in the academic performance of students taught using Instructional chart as improvised material and those taught without any Instructional materials in Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government area?

 

Availability and Utilization of Improvised Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools

1.5 Research Hypotheses

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The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between availability of improvised materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between utilization of improvised materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

Ho3 : There is no significant difference in academic performance of students taught using Instructional charts as improvised materials and those taught with any Instructional material in Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The finding of the study would be of immense benefit to teachers, students, educational planners and policy makers, researchers and even the government in the following ways.

  • The findings would help Agricultural science teachers to be able to use improvised materials for teaching in the absence of standard materials or real subjects to enhance teaching effectiveness.
  • It would bring to focus of teachers and educational planners the importance of using improvised materials for teaching and learning where standard Instructional material or real objects not readily available.
  • The findings of the study would add to the body of existing literature on the availability and utilization of improvised Instructional material and teaching effectiveness of teachers.
  • Finally, it would serve as a reference material and a spring-board for further research to those who may wish to conduct a study on availability and utilization of improvised Instructional materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science and other school subjects.

1.7 Delimitation of the study

This study was delimited to availability and utilization of improvised Instructional materials and effective teaching of Agricultural science in secondary schools in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. Analysis was on Agricultural science teacher in public secondary schools in the area.

1.8 Limitation of the study

The major factor that limit the scope of this study include, insufficient fund, time frame for the completion of the research and the researchers academic work – load.

1.9 Definition of Term

The following terms used in the study were conceptualized by the researcher as explained bellow:

Availability: The state of being adequate.

Utilization: To put something to use.

Improvised Instructional material: Those materials use by a teacher in the absence of standard materials or real objects to facilitate students understanding of Instruction.

Effective teaching: A kind of teaching where set objectives are met and where there is improvement on students understanding of Instruction.

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