Agricultural Science Project Topics

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students
Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of instructional techniques on academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area. Two (2) research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Quasi experimental design was adopted for the findings of the study. Four (4) intact classes from four (4) secondary schools were selected to give a sample size of 120 students. Agricultural Science Achievement Test (ASAT) was used to generate data for the study.

The test scores were analyzed using t-test method; and the results showed that all the calculated t-values were greater than the critical t-values. This resulted in the nullification of the null hypotheses, which revealed that there were significant difference between academic performance of students in Agricultural Science taught with discussion and lecture techniques; demonstration and guided inquiry techniques. It was recommended among others that, variety of instructional techniques should be employed to enhance effective teaching and learning process.

 

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                 Pages

Title Page                        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification                    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication                      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgements         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract                          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents            –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study                    –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem         –        –        –        –        –        4

1.3     Purpose of the Study                –        –        –        –        –        5

1.4     Significance of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5     Research Questions                  –        –        –        –        –        7

1.6     Research Hypotheses               –        –        –        –        –        7

1.7     Limitation of the Study              –        –        –        –        –        8

1.8     Delimitation of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        9

1.9     Definition of Terms                   –        –        –        –        –        9

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Concept of Instructional Technique               –        –        –        11

2.2     Problems Associated with the use of Instructional

Technique in Classroom                                –        –        –        15

 

2.3     Instructional Technique and academic achievement        –        16

 

2.4     Summary of Review of Related Literature               –        –        18

         

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

 

3.1     Research Design                                –        –        –        –        19

3.2     Area of the Study                                –        –        –        –        20

3.3     Population of the Study                       –        –        –        –        21

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique        –        –        –        –        21

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection            –        –        –        –        21

3.6     Validation of Instrument                     –        –        –        –        22

3.7     Administration of Instrument              –        –        –        –        22

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument                   –        –        –        –        23

3.9     Method of Data Analysis                     –        –        –        –        23

READ ALSO  Availability and Utilization of Improvised Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools

 

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

4.1     Results                                               –        –        –        –        24

4.2     Discussion of Findings                        –        –        –        –        27

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND

CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary                        –        –        –        –        –        –        29

5.2     Recommendations           –        –        –        –        –        –        30

5.3     Conclusion                      –        –        –        –        –        –        32

          References                    –        –        –        –        –        –        33

          Appendix                         –        –        –        –        –        –        37

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study                         

Teaching is an interactive process through which knowledge and skills are shared with students, with a view to improve students understanding and ability to manipulate the social, economic, political and physical environment to enhance their survival Brown, (2010). Ayot and Patel (2004), noted that, the main objectives of teaching are to bring about desirable learning in students. In this regard, students are expected to develop appropriate knowledge and skills, which are necessary for solving problems and improving humanities. In most cases, teacher initiates communication and influences students to think in a particular way as guided by the syllables.

However, whether the teacher authoritatively leads communication throughout the instructional process or whether the teacher takes up facilitation role is a matter of choice. Teachers’ training makes specific recommendations in favour of participatory exploratory approaches, the teacher’s efforts are often influenced by cognitive orientation in conjunction with the objectives of teaching learning process Flanders, (2011).

Instructional strategies are decision about organizing people, materials and ideas to provide learning Nwachukon, (2005). Weston and Cranston,(2007),viewed instructional techniques as both the teaching method and the materials used in the process of teaching. Instructional techniques determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives. Some of these instructional techniques include demonstration, discussion, inquiry and lecture among others.

 

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

According to Saskachewan (2009), opined that instructional skills are the most specific category of procedural purposes and for structuring appropriate learning experience for students. These include such techniques as questioning, discussion, directing, giving, explaining and demonstrating. Hence, students learn by doing, making, writing, designing, creating and solving problems (Davis, 2009)

Skills in the selection and utilization of appropriate instructional techniques are required by the teacher for effective teaching. There is no best approach to instruction. Teaching effectively demands that the teacher most posses some basic ability to organize, co-ordinate and utilize personal qualities, objectives and competency in lesson preparation, presentation and evaluation.

Besides, he must be able to motivate the learners make students active participants in learning, use appropriate techniques and facilities to enhance effectiveness in instructions. Teachers are also expected to implement a variety of instructional techniques in order to meet the objectives of the programmes as well as to address individual student interest and needs (Saskatchewan, 2009).

READ ALSO  Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Biology Students in Secondary Schools

In view of the above stated problems of teaching and learning Agricultural Science, this study became necessary in Secondary Schools in Ukanafun L.G.A., and thus, makes appropriate recommendations on better instructional techniques and skills for teaching Agricultural Science.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

        The technique used by teachers in sharing knowledge with students is a factor influencing achievement of students at all tiers of the educational system. While appropriate instructional methods are likely to enhance learning achievements, inappropriate approaches are known to stifle knowledge retention and realization of learning objectives.

        Consequently, aligning instructional techniques with the needs and preferences of students is considered important for higher learning achievement. Moreso, students who experience a mismatch between instructional techniques used during teaching and their preferred styles often feel that their learning needs are being addressed using an unfamiliar language. The mismatch poses a difficulty for some students in internalizing the materials delivered, leading to lower grades.

        Similarly, it is indicated that students whose styles are not matched with instructional techniques that are chosen by teachers are less likely to develop interest in a subject, concentration level drops and learning achievement is greatly impaired.

        Moreover, lack of proper approaches in most cases when students cannot easily follow the instructions, the lesson become boring and engender negative attitude and low interest to the students toward the course being taught. This eventually results in low academic achievement by the students. It was noted that differences in the achievement of students has been attributed to teacher’s techniques of lesson presentation, whenever any individual is determined to succeed and is properly guided using effective strategy.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

        The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of instructional techniques on academic achievement in Agricultural science among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

        Specifically, the study intended to determine the difference between the effects of:

  1. Discussion and lecture techniques on the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science.
  2. Demonstration and guided inquiry techniques on the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science.
Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students
Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

1.4   Significance of the Study

        This study and its findings will be of immense benefits to many agencies of educational system. It will provide knowledge base on the concept of instructional techniques to the teacher who are at the centre of teaching and learning process. It will be of importance to the teachers in that they will be able to select appropriate instructional strategies and materials to suit different lessons in Agricultural Science.

        The findings of this study will be significant benefit to the educational stakeholders and curriculum planners in strategizing appropriate contents and techniques in order to achieve the set educational objectives.

        The findings itself will serve as a resource material for future researchers and studies in related fields.

 

1.5   Research Questions

READ ALSO  Methods of Teaching and Biology Students Performance in Secondary Schools

        The study attempts to provide answers to the following research questions.

(i)     What difference exists between the effects of discussion and lecture techniques on the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science?

(ii)    What difference exists between the effects of demonstration and inquiry techniques on the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science?

 

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

1.6   Research Hypotheses

        The following hypothesis was formulated to guide the researcher during the course of this study.

        There is no significant difference between the effect of discussion and lecture techniques on the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science.

        There is no significant difference between the effect of demonstration and inquiry techniques on the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science.

1.7   Limitations of the Study

        This study encountered some forms of limitations during the process of its findings, which includes;

Financial Constraints: The present economic recession in the country possess some financial problems which post serious challenge in assembling facts and materials for the findings of the study.

Poor  access  roads to remote areas: Some of the schools in Ukanafun L.G.A. are located in very interior and remote area where roads are not motorable.

 

1.8   Delimitation of the Study

        This study is delimited to instructional techniques and academic achievement in Agricultural Science among Secondary Schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

        The Scope shall cover all the secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area only. The findings of this study will be of benefit not only to Ukanafun Local Government Area but to Akwa Ibom State at large.

 

Instructional Techniques And Academic Achievements In Agricultural Science Among Secondary Schools Students

1.9   Definition of Terms

        In other to avoid ambiguity in the grammatical contexts in this study, the following terms are defined:

Instructional Techniques: It is the means of delivering instruction or lesson by the teacher to the pupils or students. It is a way in which information is presented to the students.

Academic achievement: This is the knowledge attained or skills develop in school. It is also the outcome of education, it is a process which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.

Discussion technique: This is an instructional technique which deals with a verbal exchange of view, opinions or ideas between two or more people (i.e the student and the teacher).

Lecture technique: This is a process whereby the teacher verbally delivers a pre-planned body of knowledge to his/her students.

Demonstration technique: Is an instructional technique which shows learners how to do a task using sequential instructions with the end goal of having learners perform the tasks independently.

Inquiry technique: This is process through which learners are provided with opportunities to discover new rules, insights and new methods of tackling a problem as well as new values for them.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Back to top button