Availability of Learning Resources and Its Utilization in Biology among Secondary School Students
This study investigated the availability of learning resources and its utilization in Biology among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area. The population of the study consisted of all senior secondary two (SS2) students offering Biology in all the public secondary schools in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly sampled from four selected secondary schools. Survey design was used in the study. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using mean percentage.
Findings revealed that Biology laboratories are well equiped with models, apparatus and equipments. The study further revealed that the available resources are not often utilized in every teaching and learning process. Based on this, it was therefore recommended that teachers should always make use of learning resources for effective teaching and learning of Biology among others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Limitation of the Study
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Availability of Learning resources for effective teaching and learning
2.2 Utilization of learning resources for the teaching and learning
2.3 Utilization of learning resources for the teaching and learning of Biology
2.4 Summary of Review of Related Literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Area of the Study
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validation of Instrument
3.7 Administration of the instrument
3.8 Scoring of the Instrument
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation of Results
4.2 Discussion of Finding
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Oxford Dictionary, school environment is an organization where resources are produced, managed and organized in such a way that enables the student to acquire a desirable learning competency.
The utilization of resources in the teaching of Biology requires a process which will bring about or lead to a fruitful and effective teaching and learning and also motivate and stimulate students’ senses. The process of effective organization and management of resources is called Resource Utilization.
Agun (2008) asserted that one of the primary roles of a teacher in instructional situations is that of a communicator. A teacher elicits relevant responses from his audience after his teaching to see how progressive or fruitful the teaching is. In this case, the audience is of course the learners. The teacher tries in his teaching to effect some changes in the behavior of the learners by presenting some facts and information following the teaching rules and procedures which one of them is the use of learning resources to teach.
The teacher also directs and involves the learners actively and meaningfully through their participation in the lesson and also guides them so as to be sure that there is an effective transfer of knowledge.
Olagunju (2009) observed that there are varieties of resources which the science teacher can use to enrich his or her teaching.
Among them are;
Microscopes, wind vane, rain gauge, metre rules, models, charts, preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipments and a lot more.
In the same way, the learner may use or be required to use these resources in order that they may successfully or maximally achieve the objectives of the teacher’s instruction.
Be it as it may, learning resources stands out as the most important device which both the teachers and learners can use to enhance effective teaching and learning.
Abia (2008) observe that in the teaching and learning process, the availability and the utilization of instructional materials (learning resources) have become very necessary in the promotion of meaningful teaching.
Despite the importance of learning resources in the teaching of Biology, it seems that teachers make ineffective use of them as evidenced by the poor academic performance of students in Biology in public examinations. For instance, Soyibi (2009) asserts that since in 1990s, Nigerian candidates performance at the senior secondary certificate examinations have remained consistently poor with Biology having the highest enrolment and the poorest results annually in a recent study.
This trend of poor academic performance creates doubts as to whether the goal of equipping students to live effectively is in consonance with the national policy on education (2004). It is against this background that this study is undertaken to ascertain the availability of learning resources and its utilization in Biology among secondary schools students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Biology as a subject in the senior secondary schools curriculum seems to bedeviled by the problem of poor academic performance in public examinations because of the unavailability or the ineffective utilization of learning resources.
Osalus (2008) stated that a teacher needs to consider the teaching materials for each learning and make sure they are properly used so as to draw students’ attention to the lesson and also help them to understand the lesson easily and maximally.
Studies have shown that poor performance in Biology is as a result of unavailability of adequate learning resources, lack of proper usage of learning resources by the teachers, lack of well trained teachers, lack of incentive to the teachers and of course, lack of student interest in learning.
It is in view of this that the researcher attempt to find if learning resources for Biology teaching are available in secondary schools in Ukanafun and also, if the available learning resources are being effective utilized.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the availability of learning resources (that is, materials that can be used to facilitate or enhance effective learning) and its utilization in Biology among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
Specifically the study seeks to:
- Examine if learning resources such as microscope, wind vanes, rain gauge, metre rules, models, charts , preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipments and many others are available in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
- Examine if the available learning resources in Biology are effectively utilized.
1.4 Research Questions:
The following questions where formulated to guide the study:
- Are models, equipments, reagents and chemicals available in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area for Biology teaching?
- To what extent are the available learning resources utilized for the effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools?
1.5 Significance of the study
Through this survey, Educational planners will see the need of supplying learning resources for Biology teaching in schools where they are not available to enable the students learn well.
It will help the government officials to see the need of proper funding of the teachers and also sending them on further training (i.e. seminars and workshop) so that they may be able to play their roles effectively.
Government will benefit from this study because it will help them in making policies concerning the effective utilization and management of learning resources in schools.
This study will also serve as a reference point to other researchers on the same topic.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
This research was limited by a number of factors, hence there were some limitations encountered.
- Time: the period given for the completion of this survey was not enough for a wider in depth research situation.
- Finance: the financial constraint exerted a lot of influence on the study and the researcher hardly had enough money to allow for the coverage of wider area.
The study is delimited to only public secondary schools Biology students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
The following definitions are made as they are approved in the study.
Available Learning Resources: These refer to as materials that are found which can be used in teaching and learning in schools.
Resources Utilization: This is the process whereby the available learning materials are being put to use.
School Environment: This refers to a place where teaching and learning is carried out.
Biology: This refers to the study of life.