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School Variables and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers

School Variables and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of school variables on teaching effectiveness in Biology among teachers in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. In order to carry out the study, two research hypotheses were formulated. The area of the study was Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. A survey research design was used in the study. The population of the study consisted of Senior Secondary Two (SS2) Biology students in the area. The sample size of two hundred (200) students randomly selected from four (4) secondary schools, fifty (50) from each of the four schools was used for the study. The instruments for data collection were Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and questionnaire.

Data collected were analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The result revealed that the performance of students in Biology who were taught by teachers with adequate library and laboratory resources was greater than the performance of students taught by teachers without any library and laboratory resources. It was therefore recommended that government should provide facilities in both library and laboratory in all secondary schools.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                          

CERTIFICATION                                                                                   

DEDICATION                                                                                        

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                         

ABSTRACT                                                                                            

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 1.1     Background to the Study                                                           

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                                    

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                 

1.4     Research Hypotheses                                                                

1.5     Significance of the Study                                                           

1.6     Delimitation of the Study                                                           

1.7     Limitation of the Study                                                              

1.8     Definition of Terms                                                                              

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Concept of School Variables                                                       

2.2     Laboratory Resources and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers                                                                     

 2.3     School Library and Effective Teaching of Biology                        

2.4     Summary of Related Literature Review                                                

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Design                                                                       

3.2     Area of the Study                                                                      

3.3     Population of the Study                                                             

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique                                                         

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection                                                   

3.6     Validation of Instrument                                                            

3.7     Administration of the Instrument                                               

3.8     Scoring of the Test Instrument                                                  

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3.9     Method of Data Analysis                                                            

 

 CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Presentation of Result                                                                

4.2     Discussion of Finding                                                                 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

 5.1     Summary                                                                                   

5.2     Recommendation                                                                       

5.3     Conclusion                                                                                 

5.4     Suggestions for Further Studies                                                          

References                                                                                 

Appendices                                                                                

  

School Variables and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

The quality of education at any level depends largely on the qualification commitment, school system and effectiveness of the teacher. A school system such as secondary school is an essential stage in the educational hierarchy of the society. It ensures among others that students are effectively equipped for the posing challenges of the present area of science and technology. School variables are tools used in the smooth running of academic activities such as laboratory resources, library, teacher-students interaction etc. should be considered since there are numerous school variables, this work is limited to laboratory resources and library.

The teaching and learning of Biology cannot be effectively achieved without the use of library and laboratory resources. This is because Biology is one of the science subjects which involves much practical that require laboratory and it resource. Availability of laboratory resources and library is indispensable as far as the teaching of Biology in secondary schools is concerned. This is because library and laboratory resources enhance effective teaching and understanding of Biology in secondary schools.

It has been asserted that abstract teaching of Biology does not encourage quick and greater understanding of what is being taught whereas teaching of Biology with the laboratory resources make it possible for the students to follow critically with keen interest what is being taught.

 Moreover, it has been observed that schools with availability of sufficient laboratory resources and library enhance a qualitative of teaching and learning process. However, some schools do not perform very well even with the availability of laboratory resources and library for biology teaching. This is as a result of unseriousness within school system and the reluctance of some teachers to use the library and laboratory resources properly.

Essien (2007) opined that a laboratory is a place for scientific investigation such a place needs to be well managed in terms of resources that are available there, how they are arranged and utilized as well as their maintenance. The availability of laboratory resources in schools for the teaching of Biology cannot be overemphasized, those resources include laboratory, personnel, laboratory hall, laboratory tools, laboratory bench, chemicals and other equipment that are available in the laboratory.

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Recently, there has been poor performance of students in subjects involving much use of laboratory. Those subjects include Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Agricultural Science. The major reason for the poor performance is lack of laboratory resources and library or insufficient availability of laboratory, teaching aids and qualified teachers in schools for use of students in carrying out practical work.

Michael (2007) observed that as a subject, the teaching of Biology is facilitated by the availability of laboratory resources and its effective usage for investigation or demonstration of Biological facts of phenomena. For instance, an equipment like microscope to view paramecium in Biology class is better than a student whose school lack microscope and is only shown to them on the drawing from the text-book.

Ausbel (2008) observed that in the teaching learning process, the availability and the use of laboratory resources and library has become very necessary in the promotion of meaningful teaching. This implies that the availability of laboratory resources and library are vital to effective teaching of various subjects including Biology.

A skilled application of the available library and laboratory resources to a greater extent enhances effective teaching and learning of Biology lesson more dearer to the students, secondary schools with sufficient laboratory resources and library in the teaching of Biology have greater advantage over the schools.

Hence, to achieve a qualitative and improved academic performance of students, school variable must be thoroughly considered. Therefore, this work seeks to investigate whether library and laboratory resources influence effective teaching of Biology.

 

School Variables and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State and Nigeria in general overcome students’ academic performance in both internal and external examinations had been used to determine excellence in teachers and teaching.

Little is done to find out what teachers do in the laboratory and library and their role effect in students’ academic performance. The backdrop has also been noted in Biology students’ performance in various examinations. Therefore, the researcher carried out the study to investigate the effect of school variables and effective teaching of Biology.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to find out the influence of school variables on teaching effectiveness in Biology among teachers in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

  1. To investigate the influence of laboratory resources on teaching effectiveness in Biology among teachers.
  2. To assess the effect of school library on the effective teaching of biology.
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School Variables and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers

1.4   Research Hypotheses

Two research hypotheses were formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in laboratory resources and teaching effectiveness in Biology among teachers.
  2. There is no significant difference in school library and teaching effectiveness in biology among teachers.

1.5   Significance of the Study

  1. The result of this study will help government by providing library and laboratory facilities that will encourage teachers’ effective delivery.
  2. The study will reveal to the school administrators the teachers’ effectiveness and call for in-service and workshops in order to make the teachers become more effective.
  3. The study will be seen as a reference source for future researcher in related area.

 

1.6   Delimitation of the Study

  1. The study was delimited to library and teaching effectiveness in Biology among teachers in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
  2. The study was delimited to laboratory resources and teaching effectiveness in Biology among teachers in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
  3.   It is also delimited to selected secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

Research study like this always encounter limitations which include among others the time given for the completion of this study was inadequate to make the research have a wider scope.

Financial constraint also exerted pressure on the study as the researcher scarcely had enough financial resources to enable him to expand the scope of the study.

 

School Variables and Teaching Effectiveness in Biology among Teachers

1.8   Definition of Terms

School: This is referred to as institutions of learning where learners are being trained.

School variables: These are tools used in the smooth running of academic activities which change at different time interval.

Laboratory resources: This refers to the resources or the materials in the laboratory which make learning experience concrete and stimulate students’ attention and participation in the class.

Teaching: These may involve the procedures adopted by teachers in imparting sequence of knowledge for better understanding.

School library: This refers to the place in which collection of books, tapes, newspaper, etc are kept for people to read, study or borrow.

Teachers: These are paid agents of cultural diffusion hired to carry light into dark places. UNESCO refers to teachers as all those persons in schools who are responsible for providing students with education directed to all round development of human personality.

Learning facilities: These refer to those facilities in secondary schools which should be available and suitable for learning.

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