Biology Project Topics

The Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Kola on the Normal Flora of the Mouth

THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF GARCINIA KOLA ON THE NORMAL FLORA OF THE MOUTH

RESEARCH REPORT

SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY

OPTION: MICROBIOLOGY

SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCE.

MAURID POLYTECHNIC, MBIASO,

NSIT-IBOM L.G.A, AKWA IBOM STATE.

 

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN MICROBIOLOGY

                                                             

MARCH, 2023.

 

ABSTRACT

This work investigated the effects of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on the normal flora of the mouth. Two methods were adopted in this work. In the first method, Garcinia kola was chewed consecutively for 5 days after which it was observed that the bacterial load of saliva samples collected after chewing it for 5 days decreased drastically when compared to bacterial load from saliva samples collected without chewing G kola. In method two, Garcinia kola extract was obtained and impregnated on filter paper discs. These were used for sensitivity testing on samples collected from early morning mouth swabs of the volunteers. Various sizes of zones of inhibition were obtained and measured. The various results obtained from this research work.

Methods, I and 2, showed that bitter kola possesses properties that reduce the bacterial load (normal flora: Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp. Lactobaccillus etc) of the mouth to the presence of bio actives phytochemicals such as: Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloid and phenol.It is therefore recommended that Patients with oral cavity deficiencies take Garcinia kola as their remedy instead of other chemical remedies and also Garcinia kola should be taken in food quantity and not in larger doses to avoid abusing it.

 

The Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Kola on the Normal Flora of the Mouth

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page     

Title page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

 Certification   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

 Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Tables  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study –           –           –           –           –           1
  • Statement of the Problem      –           –           –           –           –           2
  • Scope of the study –           –           –           –           –           –          
  • Objective of the Study – –           –           –           –           –           2
  • Significance of the study –           –           –           –           –           3
  • Research Question- –           –           –           –           –           –           3
  • Limitation of the Study- –           –           –           –           –           3
  • Definition of Terms –           –           –           –           –           –           3
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            CHAPTER TWO-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1  Bitter kola (Garcinia kola)-          –           –           –           –           –           5

2.1.1    Ecology of Garcinia Kola-      –           –           –           –           –           7

2.1.2    Taxonomy of Garcinia kola    –           –           –           –           –           8

2.1.3    Health benefits of Garcinia kola-        –           –           –           –           9

2.1.4    Effects of excessive intake of Garcinia kola- –           –           –           12

2.2       Physiological properties of Garcinia kola-      –           –           –           15

2.3       Phytochemicals-          –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.3.1    Phytochemicals of Garcinia kola-       –           –           –           –           18

2.3.2    Functions of Phytochemicals- –           –           –           –           –           18

2.4       What is Flora?-            –           –           –           –           –           –           19

2.4.1    Normal flora and Transient flora-       –           –           –           –           20

2.4.2    Normal microbial flora in the body     –           –           –           –           20

2.4.3    Benefits of the Normal microbial flora.-         –           –           –           26

2.4.4    Harmful effects of the Normal microbial flora.-         –           –           29

2.5       Garcinia kola as an Antibiotic for Halitosis-   –           –           –           30

2.5.1    Natural tips to expel bad breath through the consumption of Garcinia kola (Bitterkola)                  –            –           –           –           –           –           32

            CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Materials Used            –           –           –           –           –           –           33

3.2       Study Area-    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.3       Collection of samples  –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.4       Preparation of Media  –           –           –           –           –           –           35

3.4.1    Composition of Nutrient agar-            –           –           –           –           35

3.4.2    Preparation of Nutrient agar   –           –           –           –           –           35

3.5       Materials sterilization- –           –           –           –           –           36

3.6       Preparation of garcinia kola extract for Serial dilution-          –           36

3.7       Preparation of garcinia kola extract without Serial dilution-              37

3.8       Inoculation, isolation and incubation procedures-      –           –           37

3.9       Macroscopic colony identification-    –           –           –           –           38

3.10     Microbial colony count –         –           –           –           –           –           38

3.11     identification of bacteria isolates: gram reaction.-      –           –           39

            CHAPTER FOUR-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Result  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

4.2       Discussion-      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

            CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

            5.1       Summary         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47

            5.2       Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           47       

            5.3       Recommendation        –           –           –           –           –           –           47

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Reference        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

Appendix        –           –           —          –           –           –           –           53

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1:        Cultural characterization and microbial load of the isolates from saliva samples on Nutrient Agar media after chewing Garcinia kola for 5 days   –           –           –           –           –           –            40

 

Table 4.2:        Microbial load of isolates using serial dilution of Garcinia kola extract         –           –           –            –           –           –           –           40

 

Table 4.3:        Characterization and identification of Bacteria isolates using Biochemical tests-     –           –            –           –           –           41

 

Table 4.4:        Antibiotic susceptibility tests results of bacteria isolates from saliva

samples and their zones of inhibition,-           –           –           42

Table 4.5:        Zones of inhibition of Garcinia kola.  –           –           –           43

 

The Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Kola on the Normal Flora of the Mouth

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Plants are important in our everyday existence. The use of plants in traditional medical practice has a long drawn history, and remains the main stay of primary health care in most of the third world. Traditional medicines are used by about 50% of the world population, in both developing and developed countries where modern medicines are predominantly used (Mythilpriya et al., 2007). The study of plants used in folklore remedies in treatment of microbial infections have attracted the attention of many scientists as possible alternatives to the existing drugs to which many infectious micro-organisms have become resistant.

Presently, there are global problems of multiple antibiotics resistance as well as emergence of new and emergence of previously eradicated diseases leading to a pressing need for new and more potent anti-microbial compounds of natural origin to complement the existing synthetic antimicrobial anti-sickling drugs. This leads to my study on Garcinia kola. This study therefore focuses on the Anti-microbial activities of Garcinia kola on the Normal flora of the mouth. It has a bitter astringent and resinous taste, somewhat resembling that of raw coffee, followed by a slight sweetness.

Bitter kola is a highly valued ingredient in African ethno medicine because of its varied and numerous uses which are social and medicinal, thus making the plant an essential ingredient in folk medicine. Medicinal plants such as G. Kola are believed to be an important source of new classical substances with potential therapeutic benefits (Eisner, 2010).

 

 1.2     Statement of the Problem

This work examines the Anti-microbial and antibiotic activities of Garcinia kola extracts on the Normal flora of the Oral cavity (mouth). It is true that there are a lot of useful microbial flora in the human mouth. But these bacteria can actually outgrow the normal microbial load of the mouth thereby leading to diverse oral deficiencies such as decay, bad breath, etc (Halitosis). This situation brings to focus the reason for this project.

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 1.3     Scope of the Study

 It focuses on the effects of Garcinia kola extract on the normal of the mouth.

 1.4     Objective of the study

 The main objective of the research work is to–

  • Determine the phytochemicals present in the Garcinia Kola
  • Determine the possible and effective uses of Garcinia Kola extract
  • And also to determine the antimicrobial activities of bitter kola on the normal flora of the mouth.

 

1.5       Significance of the study

It is hoped that the findings of this study would be useful as a guide and in the development of new drugs for resistant staphylococcus aureus and other microbes in the mouth.As well as the proper and indepth knowledge on the appropriate consumption and application of Garcinia kola.

 

1.6      Research Questions

  1. Is Garcinia Kola medically advised to be consumed in food quantity?
  2. Can the application and consumption of Garcinia kola be abused?
  3. Can Garcinia kola serve as avery active Antibiotics in the human body?
  4. What is the effect of Garcinia kola on the Normal flora of the mouth.

The Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Kola on the Normal Flora of the Mouth

1.7      Limitation of the study

  • Scarcity of bitterkola in AfahaNsit
  • Inadequate power supply
  • Insufficient funds.
  • Limited time due to short period of time to cover up the Semester.

 

1.8       Definition of terms.

Microbes: These are tiny living things found around us and are too tiny to be seen with the naked eyes except with the use of a microscope (magnifier). Microbes can also be referred to as Microorganisms. Some of which makes us fall sick while other are beneficial to our health.

Antimicrobial: An antimicrobial is an agent that prevents, kills microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, algae) or stops their growth.

Antimicrobial activity: This is defined as a collective term for all active principles (agents) that inhibits the growth of bacteria, prevents the formation of microbial colonies, and may destroy microorganisms.

Bitterkola extract: A natural content derived from bitter kola seeds significantly rich in vitamin C, Calcium, Potassium and Iron

Normal flora: These are microorganisms that are always present on or in a person and usually do not cause any form of harm or disease.

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