Chemistry Project Topics

Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Chemistry Student among Secondary Schools

Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Chemistry Student among Secondary Schools

 

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Chemistry Student among Secondary Schools in MkpatEnin Local Government Area. The specific purpose were framed to guide the study. From the stated purposes, three research questions and three research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Literature was reviewed on the topic to have the views of other authors. The study employed the survey research design and the population consisted of all the chemistry students in all the public secondary schools in MkpatEnin Local Government Area. One thousand four hundred and nine students formed the sample size. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select the respondents. The instrument used in collecting the needed data for the study was the researcher’s questionnaire tittle: instructional strategies and the learning of chemistry questionnaire (ISLCQ) the data gathered were analyzed using Pearson’s product Moment Correlation Coefficient Statistical method.

 

Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Chemistry Student among Secondary Schools

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  Background to the Study

Instructional strategies are decisions about organizing students’ materials and ideas to provide learning. It is viewed as both the teaching method and the materials used in the process of teaching. Instructional strategies determine the technique a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives. Some of these include demonstration, discussion, and lecture strategy among others. According to Saskatchcwan (2012) educational instructional strategies are the most specific category of teaching behavior. They are necessary for procedural purpose and for structuring appropriate learning experiences for questioning, discussion, directing, giving, explaining and demonstrating. Hence, students learn by doing, writing, designing, creating and solving.

Skill in the selection and utilization of appropriate instructional strategies are required by the teacher for effective teaching. There is no one best strategy to instruction. Teaching effectively demand that the teacher must possess some basic ability to organize, coordinate and utilize personal qualities, objective and competency in lesson preparation, presentation and evaluation. Besides, he or she must be able to motivate the learners, make students active participants in learning, use appropriate techniques and facilities to enhance effectiveness in instruction. Teachers are also expected to implement a variety of instructional techniques in order to meet the objectives as well as address individual student’s interest and needs.

Eddie (2010), views instructional strategies as any conscious device intended for the use in the process of interpreting a given curriculum content. Accordingly there have been a contentious search or quest for the most effective technique to teaching and learning chemistry. A number of strategies abound in teaching the science subject (chemistry). Some of these are discussion, demonstration, discovery, project problem-solving methods and so on.

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As noted by Ekanem (2011), the strategy to be chosen varies from subject to subject and from one topic to another. Though, no topic could be totally effective in all situations. Instructional strategies are used in the presentation of lesson to help the students learn by ensuring the smooth delivery of the instruction. It is a process by Which an instructional model/phase instructional phase or an entire course is delivered.

Bajah (2011) defined instructional strategies as decision about organizing students, materials and ideas to provide learning. It is viewed as both the teaching method and the materials used in the process of teaching. Instructional strategies determine the technique a teacher may to achieve learning objectives.

Quite remarkably, regular poor academic achievement by the majority of students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective instructional strategies by teacher to impact knowledge to learners. Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that quality of teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used in teaching to be effective, Adunda (2011) observed that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take cognizance of the magnitude of complexity of the concept to be covered. In view of the above, this study become necessary to determine the effects of instructional strategies in teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools in MkpatEnin Local Government Area.

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Without good classroom management, motivation and discipline skills, teachers cannot effectively implement their lesson plans. For teachers to be effective in today’s society, they must know how to apply modern technology to improve instruction. It is important to note that the students learn and achieve when competent teachers use well organized instructional strategies, variety of method and tools, and use them effectively. Martin (2013) stated that Chemistry education is the scientific study and appropriate application of the principles and methods of teaching and learning as they pertain to the life and natural resources system.

Since Chemistry is being emphasized, we should reexamine experimentation as a teaching method and place more emphasis on the techniques and procedures involved in experimentation. This approach coupled with the current use of problem solving could lead to the advancement of Chemistry teaching. In view of the emerging concept, it would be appropriate to explore more fully on information sources and computers in the context of instructional strategies. In order to maintain student interest, a combination of instructional strategies may need to be in a single class period.

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Teaching of Chemistry in school nowadays require skills in order to cope with rapid technological changes these new skills can be provided especially by using a variety of teaching strategies and effectiveness in secondary schools. There has been much concern expressed about quality teaching in education, while industries in the rapidly changing society have concerns about teaching effectiveness, these concerns have led to a focus on instructional strategies and their effectiveness in the secondary school Chemistry program. The central problem of this study was to identify the instructional strategies used by teachers of Chemistry and their effectiveness in secondary school programs in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

 

Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Chemistry Student among Secondary Schools

 

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate instructional strategies and academic performance of Chemistry student among secondary schools in MkpatEnin Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. determine the difference between inquiry strategy and lecture strategy and the learning of  Chemistry in secondary schools.
  2. determine the difference between demonstration strategy and lecture strategy and the learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  3. determine the difference between problem-solving strategy and lecture strategy and the learning of  Chemistry in secondary schools.

 

1.4     Significance of the Study

The study is designed to make information available for teacher principals, government and students. The study will be beneficial to the teacher in that they will be able to select appropriate instructional strategies and materials to suit different lesion for effective teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools in MkpatEnin Local Government Area. It will help the teacher and the students to realize that the understanding of the lesson in Chemistry can be highly improved through the right choice of appropriate teaching techniques and class activities rather than talk and chalk technique. Also, they will be aware of the fact that students interest is enhanced if they are properly guided to discover facts and principles by themselves other than being supplied them with everything  teachers.

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There will be active participation of students in class discussion and effective learning. The study will be of immense benefit to government, the ministry of education, and the educational policy makers and administrators. The study will also provide the necessary tool for understanding and evaluating the problem associated with instructional strategies and the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools in MkpatEninLocal Government Area.

 

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;

  1. What difference exists between inquiry instructional strategy and lecture instructional strategies in the learning of chemistry in secondary school?
  2. What difference exists between demonstration instructional strategy and lecture instructional strategies in the learning of chemistry in secondary school?
  3. What difference exists between problem-solving instructional strategy and lecture instructional strategies in the learning of chemistry in secondary school?

 

1.6  Research Hypotheses

In order to guide the study, the following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study;

  1. There is no significance difference exists between inquiry instructional strategy and lecture instructional strategies in the learning of chemistry in secondary schools
  2. There is no significance difference exists between demonstration instructional strategy and lecture instructional strategies in the learning of chemistry in secondary school
  3. There is no significance difference exists between problem-solving instructional strategy and lecture instructional strategies in the learning of chemistry in secondary school.

 

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

The study was restricted to instructional strategies and the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. The study focuses on discussion strategy, lecture, and demonstration strategies and its impact in the teaching of Chemistry in the study Area.

 

1.8    Limitation of the Study

The study was affected by insufficient time, materials and funds. Only public secondary schools were used for the study in the secondary schools in the study area.

 

1.9     Operational Definition of Terms

Instructional Strategies: Is the process or manner by which an instructional module, instruction phase, or an entire course is delivered and which may include discussion, demonstration and lecture strategies etc.

Inquiry Strategy: is a pedagogical approach that invites students to explore academic content by posing, investigating and answering questions.

Demonstration Instructional Strategy: is a method of through example or instructional

Lecture Instructional Strategy: is the process of teaching by giving spoken explanation of the subject that is to be learned.

Learning: is the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience or being taught.

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