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Teachers Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools

Teachers Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools

 

Abstract

The focus of this study was to examine the teachers perception on the causes of indiscipline and its influence on student academic performance in secondary schools. Three research questions, three null hypotheses were raised to guide the study based on the purpose of the study. The research adopted a survey research design in carrying out the research work. The population for this study consists of all the Economics students in all the sixteen (16) public secondary schools in the study area. The target population for the study was all the senior secondary two students in all the public secondary schools in the study area.

The total population was six hundred and eighty (608) students. The research adopted simple random sampling technique in carrying out the study. Five (5) public secondary schools were drawn from the total of sixteen (16) secondary schools in the study area. From each of the selected five secondary schools for the study, twenty (20) students were drawn to form the sample size for the study. This summed up to one hundred (100) students forming the sample size for the study.

The instrument used for gathering of the needed data for the study was Indiscipline Behaviour and Academic Performance Questionnaire (IAPBQ). The method used in analyzing the data collected for the study was independent t-test statistical tool. Based on the result of this study, it was established that indiscipline has a significant influence on students’ learning outcomes in secondary schools, if not checked, these indiscipline behaviours are capable of not only influencing students’ learning outcomes alone, but the entire school management.

 

Teachers Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

        As the key of effective classroom management (Ugurlu, 2014), teachers are required to have knowledge of the terms and theories related to discipline. There exists a different strategy for teachers to develop and implement in association with undesired student behaviours. Each discipline problem shapes decisions and implementations of teachers towards discipline. When it is considered that education is the process to sustain desired behaviour change in students, it can be said that discipline, too, recalls a similar meaning.

Perception according to Asemsro (2018) is the process by which people organize and interpret the patterns of stimuli in their environment. It is a mental process emanating from the Gestalt Theory of stimuli organization and interpretation. Moreover, classroom discipline is considered as the key for effective learning and teaching.

Nevertheless, the increasing rate of anti-social behaviours in the society, particularly among Nigerian youths is alarming. It has become a common phenomenon to read, hear or witness indiscipline behaviours among secondary school students such as lying, stealing, fighting, promiscuity, bullying, truancy, alcoholism, lack of respect for elders among others.

Today, indiscipline behaviours among teenagers have become a thing of concern to parents, teachers and other people in the society as the problem gets more serious year by year. In every society, there are sets of norms which members are expected to observe but not every member of the society abides by those norms. Members who live contrary to the set norms are referred to as indiscipline. In spite of the good objectives for the inclusion of social studies, civic education, religious studies etc in the school curriculum to ensure moral development of learners, the society still faces various challenges among which are indiscipline behaviours among the students.

Indiscipline is the breaking of rules and regulations of institutions. Individuals willingly or unwillingly violating laid down rules of an institution, which hampers the smooth running of the institution. Indiscipline can simply be seen as mode of life NOT in conformity with rules and non-subjection to control. By extension, the term indiscipline connotes the violations of school rules and regulations capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system. Indiscipline breeds corruption and other related social vices (Jekayinfa (2013).

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Zubaida (2019) identifies various forms of indiscipline among the secondary school students such as truancy, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting/assaulting, stealing, rioting, and many other antisocial vices. According to him, a number of these acts of indiscipline were directed against constituted authorities and established rules. An example of this is refusal to wear the right school uniform and going out of bounds without permission. The respect which teachers command among students had been seriously worn-off. And some teachers have not done much to help the situation by their actions. Onyije and Ojedapo (2010) identify some factors that cause indiscipline among students such as government nonchalant attitudes to education, parental factors and teachers’ attitude. Student indiscipline is a great concern among education administrators, teachers and stakeholders across the globe (Njoroge & Nyabuto, 2014).

Student insurgences against authority are increasing in most countries, perhaps because nowadays schools have children from dysfunctional homes, poverty stricken, single parents or teenage parents (Kute, 2014). Parental supervision is also declining day by day causing many students to develop low regard towards all forms of authority.

Schools today have to deal with the problem of weapons, recruitment into criminal groups, rivalry, drugs and substance abuse, trafficking and youth radicalization. These cases are experienced all over the world (Afullo, 2015; Kute, 2014).The problem of indiscipline in schools has persisted over the years. These acts have either been carried out individually by the students or as a group which result to rioting or revolts (Idu & Ojedepo, 2011).

There are many types of indiscipline behaviours exhibited by students in secondary schools. For instance, Hamza in Odiba (2016), identified basically three types of indiscipline in schools which include Anti social act; Act of defiance and Act of negligence. Anti social act refers to the destruction of public properties and rioting, hooliganism, stealing and bullying. Act of defiance can usually be directed against established rules of the school for instance, going out without permission, avoidance of wearing school uniform, smoking, drinking of alcohol and abuse of drugs, sexual immorality and failure to serve punishment and carry out lawful duties while acts of negligence are many which include lateness to school and careless handling of school facilities.

        Indiscipline behaviour according to Kendall (2009) is a behaviour that deviates from the norms of a particular people in the society or community. Crossman (2018) describes indiscipline behaviour as any behaviour that is contrary to the dominant norms of society. Deviance also means violation or drift from the accepted societal norms, especially when it comes to the social or sexual behaviours (Wikipedia, 2018). From these definitions, deviance means behaviour that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society. It implies violation of rules and norms.

From observation, indiscipline behaviours can negatively influence students’ learning outcomes due to display of some that are directly related to learning in the classroom such as cheating during examinations, lateness, truancy, fighting, causing trouble or violence, stealing, wearing dirty uniform and disobedience. Chikwature, Oyedele and Ganyani (2016) identified cheating (60%) and fighting (40%) among others as indiscipline behaviours exhibited by primary school pupils. Indiscipline behaviours among students can also include breaking rules, getting involved in wrong, illegal or immoral activities, substance use or abuse, criminal activity and indiscipline behaviour. Getting involved in any of these disallows students from focusing on academic activities.

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When deviance persists, especially in the form of verbal abuse of teachers, disruptive classroom behaviour, noncompliance with school rules and regulations, teachers and students cannot function effectively. Deviance, when left unchecked erodes the very system which is charged with the responsibility of fostering and developing responsible, caring and intelligent individuals who can contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. As such, a concerted effort must be made by stakeholders to arrest the problem of deviance as it exists today, if a more progressive and prosperous society is to be re-built.

Ajuzie (2005) submits that deviance should be eradicated or put under control in the society. She argues further that the best a society could do in order to achieve this is to undertake application of knowledge to practical ends, through corrections, development of policies and programmes for combating crime to reform, remobilize and to treat indiscipline. Education is the most important tool to prevent young generation from being manipulated by these anti-social behaviours in the society.

 Agboola and Salawu (2011); Torrente and Vazsonyi (2012) were of the view that indiscipline behaviours negatively influence the learning and teaching process as they undermine the purpose of education. Apart from this, most of the observed indiscipline behaviours attract punishment can range from kneeling down, taking some strokes of the cane, suspension, manual labour among others. Such punishments waste students time and stop them from participating in learning or other classroom activities. In view of this, it was deemed necessary to find out Teacher’s Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools.

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem  

        Indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria has caused so many problems by devaluating our certificates through examination malpractice and certificate forgery; wanton destruction of school and government properties through violence; and killing and maiming themselves through drug and substance abuse and cultism. Indiscipline in school greatly affects the quality of teaching and learning which results to poor results, dropouts, and wastage of resources invested by stakeholders of education such as parents, and the government.

Recently, the incidence of indiscipline behaviours among Nigerian youths has been on the increase. This has resulted into many social problems in Nigerian society. The resultant problems have been of great concern, not only to parents but also to governments at all levels. Indiscipline behaviours among secondary school students deserve careful study as they affect their academic performance.

        Indiscipline behaviours have constituted a problem that has led to student’s attrition, late arrival at school, and low learning outcomes. Other related behaviours among students that are also of concern include, aggression, theft burglary, destruction of school property, truancy, rudeness and sexual harassment. These negative behaviours are observed amongst male and female students of different age categories and locations. Indiscipline behaviours are also linked to quality of teaching and learning in the classrooms.

Quite often, school boys break into school offices and staff rooms, with the intention of stealing textbooks, examination scripts and exercise books. Most of the times, these boys or children get caught, when luck elude them. These behaviors of children significantly affect their academic performance in school. Therefore this research seeks to find out; Teacher’s Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area

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1.3     Purpose of Study  

        The main purpose of this study was to investigate Teachers Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Find out the perception of teachers on school based factors that cause indiscipline in secondary schools
  2. investigate the influence of truancy on academic performance of students in secondary schools
  3. determine the influence of drugs use on academic performance of students in secondary schools

 

Teachers Perception on the Causes of Indiscipline and Its Influence on Student Academic Performance in Secondary Schools

1.4     Research Questions

         The following research questions were posed to guide the study;

  1. To what extent does truancy influence the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area?
  2. To what extent does drugs abuse influence the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area?
  3. How does stealing influence the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area?

1.5    Statement of Hypotheses

        The following hypotheses were postulated to guide the study;

Ho1. There is no significant influence of truancy on academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area

Ho2.   There is no significant influence of drugs abuse on the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area

Ho3.   There is no significant influence of stealing on the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area

  1. 6 Significance of the study

This study will be of great benefits to the following people in the following ways:

The study will expose the students to the harmful effects of indiscipline on learning outcomes and thus serve as a cautionary measure for students. Through this study students and teachers at secondary school level will know how to practically use the content of Economics curriculum to instill desirable behaviour in students, correct and remold the indiscipline students among them.

The study will serve as an important reference to researchers who wish to further study in this area.

1.7       Delimitation and Limitation a of the Study

        This study is on indiscipline behaviour and the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. The study is limited to all public secondary schools in Mkpat Enin and particularly to junior secondary schools.

1.8      Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered some limitations to the scope of the study

Availability of research materials:

The research material available to the researcher was insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

Time: the time frame allocated for the study could not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities with examinations during the research period.

Finance: finance also posed a stress for the research work thereby limiting the study to some selected secondary schools in the study area.

 

 1.9     Operational Definition of Terms

Indiscipline behaviour: Is to deviate from the norms of a particular people in the society or community

Truancy: is any intentional, unjustified, unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education.

Drug Abuse: refers to the use of certain chemicals for the purpose of creating pleasurable effects on the brain.

Stealing: is an act of taking the property of another wrongfully especially as an habitual or regular practice.

Learning: Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences’

Learning Outcome: it is an expected performance from a student after participated in a course or programme.

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