Mathematics Project Topics

Home variables and academic performance of pupils in Mathematics in primary schools

Home variables and academic performance of pupils in Mathematics in primary schools



This study examines home variables and academic performance of pupils in Mathematics in primary school in Urue-Offong/ Oruko Local Government Area. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study, and sample sizes of 100 Pupils were randomly selected for the study, simple percentage method of data analysis was used to analyses the data. Based on the finding of the study, it is revealed that home variable such as socio economic status of the parent and parent educational level is significantly related to the academic performance of the Pupils.


Home variables and academic performance of pupils in Mathematics in primary schools




1.1 Background of the Study

Home is the first and the most significant place for the child’s inclusive growth and development. It provides not only the hereditary transmission of basic potentials for the child but also the favourable environment in terms of interpersonal relationship and cultural pattern.

However, education like in school at home must also strive to achieve the desired objective in principles with constructive ways of perceiving and making self meaning. However, educational psychologist broadly maintained that in education development of a child, home and school are the twin that play complimentary roles and also towards the social bringing of the children in the society. Omebe (2002) agreed on the ideology that, home is the forerunner of the school, He also expressed that; the home and school are the two notable institutions that cultures a child to be what he/she is in the society.

Egboh and Igba (2003) in their personal reflection added that the homes are the two stages that combined efforts to propagate a child or children to face the challenges in his or her lives in the society. Okpahone (2002), Stated that home is the basic education formation, while school is responsible for the addition and supplement. Therefore, if the foundation laid by the home is fragile, the child may not stand firm and benefit adequately from the primary school education.

Also WIlkai (2000) believe that many educational authorities have sought to find out reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of primary school pupils. Accordingly, Uwafoul (2008) has attributed this development to poor personal institutional factors. The personal factors include the level of individual’s intelligence, knowledge and ability on the part of the teacher, while institutional factors are parental influence.

Olayuika (2007) pointed out that the parent’s are the bed rock of any meaningful and developed society. Obayan  (2013) observed that a stable and well developed childhood can be guaranteed by a stable parenthood.

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The current challenges that have negatively affected their academic performance in the learning of mathematics in primary schools, this observation agrees with the report of Adequika (2009) that unnecessary behavior arise when the parent’s lack responsibility of their parenthood and that children that were raised from economically disadvantaged background are likely to have poor academic performance because they lack some basic and valuable amenities such as food, clothing and shelter; the saddest of it all, is that we have all the teaching facilities and equipments with modern infrastructures, more qualified and experience teachers that we had in the past, more improved effective teaching methods and strategies and all facilities as well as basic amenities one could need for effective learning, the question that arises now is with all these facilities, why is our education falling continuously in the system today?

The research deems it fit to research on this variables that buy a delinquency into our educational system, the fact is that some extremely bad, when such variables variations in scores are traced, it is more often unconcern that parental background is the major contributory factors.

Eyake (2004) Stated that a child whose parents take a great deal of interest in what he/she does at school and give his/her the necessary supports by providing all the required books and finances and such a child is likely to excel more than a child whose parents do not give such incentives and encouragement.

More so, pupil’s attitudes to learning and educational performances are shaped by the kind of stimulus offered to them in their various homes, the families’ parentally socioeconomic background, parental level of education, and parental occupations. It is therefore, evident that pupil’s academic performance in government is contingent on the stimulus the parent’s offers.

Adeyeme (2012) says that the parents fail to provide the child with the necessary equipment to fit him into his proper place in society and guide him properly for his/her future career, then the child’s will damaged is future career if he/she is not guided. An analysis of the percentage of primary school dropouts today entails that such pupils are usually from poor or broken home.

Furthermore, Adu (2016) points out that economics position of parent’s is one of the major factors that can influence greatly the academic upbringing of a child, in most families either of some of parents may be earning income enough to sustain the home, faced with malnutrition and other emotional and psychological effects, the mental development of the child would be greatly retarded.

Orhanger (2011) adds that low income parents with plenty of feeding problems may prove pupil’s who physical and mental development poses real challenge    to the schools effort at optimum development of the child. It is therefore that this research work intended to explore the degree to which these useful influences the academic performance of pupils, with useful suggestions that would help in addressing this problem, since the greatness of any nations depends on the genius, quality, attitude and aspiration of the citizens.

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1.2 Statement of the Problems

The study was to determine the impact and the effect of Home variables and Academic Performance Pupils in Mathematics in Primary Schools in Urue-Offong/Oruko Local Government Area of Akwa Thom States. Rampant mathematics failure among pupils in examination and low academic performance in test has always been the attribute of pupils. Pupils are also involved in examinational malpractices even in this early stage of their ac academic career, the attitude toward their studies and school activities were very poor; the general influence which lead to some of these problems were due to parental background and socio-economic background of parent’s.

Research has proved that poor parental background is an hindrance to student performance in mathematics, some differences which influences pupil’s academic performance such as lack of payment of their school fees promptly, while others were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some pupils have problem with provision of school uniforms, but other do not.

Likewise, some pupils were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books for writing. Since poor parental background and poor performance have a long standing disease, therefore, this research work was carried out to investigate remote cause on how the effect of poor performance could be address on the learning of mathematics with the view of proffering effective methods for addressing this problem.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Home Variables and Academic
Performance in Mathematics among Primary Schools Pupils in Urue-Offong/Oruko Local Government Area.

The study specifically sought to:

  1. Find out if, parental level of education relate to pupil’s academic performance in mathematics.
  2. Find out if socio-economic background of the parent has a significant relationship with pupil’s academic performance in mathematics in primary school.


Home variables and academic performance of pupils in Mathematics in primary schools


1.4 Research Questions

The research question for this study is stated bellowed;
i. How does parental level of education relate with academic performance of pupils in primary schools?

ii.  To what extent does parental socio-economic background relate with academic performance of pupils in primary schools?

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1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide study:

  1. There is no significant relationship between parental level of education and academic performance of pupils in mathematics in primary schools.
  2. There is no significant relationship between parental socio-economic background and academic performances of pupils in mathematics in primary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings from this study when completed will help the parent to be aware of the effect the parents have on student and how such variable affect academic performance of student positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance.
        They will be able to adopt measures of bringing up their children’s in a positive way that they will significantly perform, higher academically.

Secondly, it is likely to encourage and enlighten parent’s to make their children    relatively     comfortable in   school, this study will also aid pupil’s of    various home to    be   aware and bear in with their parent’s inability to provide                                  them with all necessary requirement in school, and also sympathize with them, with parental problem and situation.
Thirdly, the findings will be significantly important to educational planners and curriculum developers without rigidity to suit diverse.
Finally, the information from this study will provide more literature for further studies in the field of school administration.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

This research was limited by some certain factors such as time, financial in capabilities, lack of appropriate materials and vital information, funds and high cost of buying materials which contributed to several decline in this studies.

Another limitation was on the current recession and present depression in the country’s economy, rising to this research. Due to time and financial constraints, the research could not claim a wider coverage of the area stipulated for study.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

The study was carried out in Urue—Offong/Oruko Local Government Area. It was more convince for the researcher to gather, and analyzed data because this was her home, this study was limited to home variables and pupil’s academic performance in mathematics.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Parent: a caregiver of offspring or affect one life economically.

Background: economic stability of a person, educated and not educated or financial state of a person.

Academic: an arena for learning or place where knowledge is acquired.

Performance: the level of once grade or activeness in school.

Socio-economic Background: is defined in this concept as the amount of money, material goods one possesses.

Government: the group of people that govern a community or unit. Student: a person who is studying at place of higher education. School: an institution for education is given in a particular discipline.

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