Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Government
This research work dealt with Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Government. In order to achieve these objectives, two research questions and hypotheses were formulated for the study, the review of related literature was done. The instrument used for data collection was Teaching Technique and Academic Performance Questionnaire (TTAPQ) developed by the researcher for the respondents. An expo facto research design was adopted for the study.
The population of the study was consisted of all SS1 – 3 students offering Government within 4 public secondary schools across Oron Local Government Area, numbering (1,815) while the sample size consisted of two hundred (200) students. A simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the subject, meanwhile, all the test scripts administered were dully collected and scores were recorded for each of the pupils and the data obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) as a statistical tool.
Teaching Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Government
1.1 Background To The Study
The teaching-learning process embodies a vast array of instructional procedures at the centre of which is the teacher. The teacher’s role in this process is that of a communication concerned with eliciting relevant responses from the learners. The main purpose of teaching is to effect change in the behaviour of the learners. This purpose is achieved through proper communication on the part of the teacher. The message becomes meaningful when the teaching techniques involve the learners’ active participation and also foster transfer of learning.
Tebabal and Kahssay (2011) pointed out that the chief aim of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner. To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers usually apply certain teaching techniques that best suit the objectives of their lessons. It is then obvious that what a teacher does in the classroom depends to some degree upon his approach to the learning situation. This is because the use of any method is very critical to children’s success or failure in school.
Kearne (2008) believes that the responsibility of the teacher is to create a conducive environment and also influence pupil’s behaviour in the course of his teaching. Success in teaching is measured by the degree to which the teacher is able to achieve the desired learning of the students. In this way, he or she must know how to select the content and method to use.
Ekanem and Ntuk (2003) noted that good learning encompasses a multitalented approach. This involves exposing the facts (cognitive), making the learner develop interest and affection for what is taught (affective) and finally enabling the learner transfer what has been taught into practical terms (psychomotive). This approach of teaching gives the child a wholistic development. In this respect, the basic goals of teaching are to help students to:
- Acquire, retain and use knowledge
- Understand, analyse, synthesize and evaluate ideas
- Establish habits
- Develop attitudes and skills
- Conform to socially-accepted values
According to Dyer (2005), teaching requires that the teacher plans his instruction with clearly-stated objectives. The objectives of instruction defines the positive changes in behaviour, that is, the new knowledge, new ideas, or new information that the learner will gain after undergoing a packaged teaching/learning experience.
In essence, teaching involves bringing about desirable changes in children’s character and conduct. To accomplish this onerous task, teachers should be conversant with the numerous teaching techniques at their disposal.
In other words, they need to possess requisite knowledge, skills and competences associated with management and dissemination of information in the classroom. Since effective teaching among other factors play significant role in enhancing school performance, the present research delves into investigating the influence of teaching techniques on students’ academic performances in Government in Oron Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is increasingly becoming more difficult to be an effective or efficient teacher today than ever before. The demand of the learners are more complex and more varied due to the changing nature of education in the 21st century. Earlier, a teacher was expected to be vast in book knowledge and impact same to his students. Nowadays, he is thus expected to integrate all knowledge and to be an effective teacher, he should manage not only his students, but also information (Olatunbosun, 2008).
The researcher has observed with disdain that in Oron Local Government Area, the use of teacher-centred method to teach students is very rampant. For instance, in some secondary school, students are taught Government and other subjects through lecturing and story-telling. In other cases, most teachers adopt questions and answer techniques as a matter of convenience. Regrettably, these children become passive listeners to the lesson and may lose interest in class activities. By and large, there is every possibility for such children to come out with poor results at the end. No wonder, such students would resort to examination malpractice and other unwholesome acts to pass.
Consequently, the ugly scenario described above has prompted the researcher to ask pertinent questions like:
- How do the teacher’s teaching techniques affects the academic performance of students in Government?
- Will there be any difference in students’ performances if the teacher uses two techniques to teach the same lesson in Government?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general aim of this study is to examine teaching techniques and students’ academic performance in Government in Oron Local Area. This is encapsulated in the following specific objectives which are to:
- Determine the relationship between demonstration technique and lecture technique on students’’ academic performance.
- Determine the relationship between discussion technique and lecture technique on students’ academic performance in Government.
1.4 Research Questions
To give the study a guide, the following research questions are formulated:
- To what extent does demonstration technique relate with lecture technique on students’ academic performance in Government.
- How does discussion technique relate with lecture technique on students’ academic performance in Government
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are stated in line with the research questions.
- There is no significant relationship between Demonstration Technique and Lecture technique on students’ academic performance in Government.
- There is no significant relationship between discussion technique and lecture technique on students’ academic performance in Government.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is significant for the following reasons
- It helps to improve the academic performance of secondary school students in Government.
- It will enable teachers to be more flexible in their method of teaching in order to motivate students to learn.
- It will enlighten the Government on the need to retrain teachers through in-service programmes, conferences and seminars to keep them abreast with developments in the field of pedagogy.
- It will help teachers to spice up their Government lessons with instructional materials so as to stimulate the students’ interests.
- It will serve as a reference point for other researchers who might investigate the same variables.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Limitations are inevitable in under-taking a research of this magnitude and these are:
- Insufficient Finance: This poses a major impediment as the researcher hardly gathered enough funds to covers schools in other areas.
- Time Constraint: The period given for the completion of this study could hardly allow or an in-depth research due to the researcher’s involvement in other academic activities.
- Problems of Geographical Spread: The study was restricted to only one Local Government Area (Oron) out of thirty-one (31) and did not extent to others for the researcher to access the existing situation.
- Limited Inputs: This was another setback since there are few materials published on the research topic.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to teaching techniques and students’ academic performance in Government in Oron Local Government Area. Also, three techniques – demonstrative, lecture and discussion are examined. In addition, only students offering Government will be used as respondents for the study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as used in this study:
Teaching: This refers to the process of imparting knowledge and skills to children, especially in schools.
Teaching techniques: These refers to the different methods that teachers employ when imparting knowledge in the classroom.
Teacher: This refers to a person who has undergone training and is certified to dispense knowledge to learners in schools.
Student: This refers to a child receiving instruction in a post-primary institution of learning.
Academic Performance: This refers to the cumulative score of a child in the school record as obtained from test and examination.
Government: Government refers to a subject being taught in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.