Primary Education Studies Project Topics

Home Variables and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Pre-primary Pupils

Home Variables and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Pre-primary Pupils

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated Home Variables and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Pre-primary Pupils. The population of the study consist of 1,873 pupils in SS2 class in all the six (6) public pre-primary in the study area. Three research questions were raised and three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature related to the study was reviewed. A survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of Two Hundred [200] respondents were selected from five [5] public Pre-primary under the study area using stratified sampling techniques. The main instrument used for data collection for the study was Economics Achievement Test (EAT).

The result from the instrument was analyzed statistically using independent t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significant.  Findings from the study revealed that pupils whose parents are highly educated performed better academically than those whose parents are not highly educated, also pupils whose parent income is high performed better academically than those from low income parents, finally, pupils whose parents has better occupation performs better than pupils whose parents do not have better occupation.

 

Home Variables and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Pre-primary Pupils

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Education, in its broadest sense, is a process designed to inculcate knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to enable individuals to cope effectively with their environment. Its primary purpose is to foster and promote the fullest individual self-realization for all people. It is indispensable to normal living, without education the individual would be unqualified for group life. Education is the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individuals as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. Notably, it is often said to be the powerful tool for developing intellectual abilities, shaping cultural attributes, acquiring knowledge and skills as well as a favourable tool to move a nation towards developing it scientific and technological culture.

A home is a place where one lives permanently, especially as a member of a home or household. It is a place of residence or refuge. A home is not a mere transient shelter. Its essence lies in the personalities of the people who live in it. Home variables comprise of all human and materials factors that affect an individual development in the home where one live. It is an influence an individual came in contact with after the hereditary has been through the gene plasma. The home as a basic social unit of the society is the first social group that a child meets on earth.

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A number of conditions prevailing in the home have some effects on child’s upbringing and his way of behaving. Hence, the social climate or environment in which an individual finds him or her to a large extent determines his or her behaviour and personality development. Home variables have been of a great important in shaping the performance of children in schools worldwide. This is because academic performance is usually as a result of motivation that children get from the people they interact with in their initial stages of life.

Home variables comprises of the level of education of parents, parental socio-economic status, home size and other factors which are essential aspects in development of student’s personality and academic function. The socio-economic status of parents is capable of affecting the behaviour of the children and determines their aspiration.

Parents with high socio-economic status often have more success in preparing their children for school because they typically have access to wide range of providing their young children with high quality child-care, books and encourage children in various learning activities at home. They also have easy access to information regarding their children’s health, as well as social, emotional and cognitive development (Ojo and Yilma 2010), Ojo and Yilma also noted that in all socio-economic groups, parents face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care  and education for their children and  these challenges are more pronounced in poor families. This, according to them, is because sometimes, when the basic necessities are lacking, parents must place top priority on housing, food, clothing and health care, regarding education materials and books as luxuries.

Parents’ education is another home background factor which influences the academic achievement of pupils. Pupils under motivated condition, exhibits purposeful behaviour aimed at achieving academic set goals. The achievement of these goals determines the motive. The situational perspective according to the scholars focuses on learning context. These scholars further identified to factors that greatly influence pupils’ motivation. These are: interpersonal factors such as curiosity, perseverance, and autonomy (intrinsic-factors) and environmental factors such as parents, peers and sibling (extrinsic factors).

In addition, high parental aspirations have been associated with increasing pupils’ interest in education. The effect of parental motivation and involvement in their children’s school has a greater impact on their academic achievement. Parental motivation and involvement in school has also been linked to both positive and negative influences on academic achievement of pupils in schools (McNeal, 2001, Domina, 2005). Parental occupation is also an important home factor that influences academic achievement of pupils in school. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate Home variables and  pupils’ academic performance in social studies in pre-primary pupils in Okobo Local Government Area.

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1.2       Statement of the Problem

Despite the zeal of parents to send their children to school, most time cannot meet up with necessary support to accomplish it; academic performance of pupils varies from one individual to another. For example, some pupils withdraw from school without completing their course work even at the pre-primary level. This situation has attracted a lot of research work into the causes of differences in academic or school performance among pupils. Studies have shown that factors like home factors, the environment, hereditary, the school itself and other factors could be held responsible for this. Hence, there is need for this study to find out how Home variables influence pupils’ academic performance in social studies in pre-primary pupils in OkoboLocal Government Area.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate Home variables and pupils academic performance in social studies in pre-primary pupils in Okobo Local Government Area, specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Examine the influence of parental occupational background on pupils’ academic performance in social studies in pre-primary.
  2. Assess the influence of parental socio economic status on   academic performance of pupils in social studies in pre-primary.
  3. Ascertain the influence of parental level of education on pupils’ academic performance in social studies in pre-primary.

 

Home Variables and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Pre-primary Pupils

 

1.4       Significance of the Study

The study will be of great benefit to many people in different ways with particular reference to parents, teachers, pupils, educational planners, lecturers and nation at large. Through the findings of this study, parents will realize the importance of improving their educational standard so as to influence their children academic performance. Parents will also understand the need for them to improve their socio-economic status so as to be able to provide the necessary motivation in form of learning materials and other things necessary to enhance their children’s learning and their academic performance.

The findings will be of immense important to the teacher. The teacher will realize the necessity of individualizing the teaching by structuring their teaching methods and instructional resources to take care of the divergent parental backgrounds of the pupils. The findings of the study will help the educational stakeholders in identifying how home variables such as parent’s level of education and parents’ income influence on academic performance of pupils.

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1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does parental occupation background influence pupils’ academics performance in social in pre-primary?
  2. How does parental socio-economic status influence pupils’ academics performance in social studies pre-primary?
  3. How does parental educational background influence pupils’ academic performance in social studies in pre-primary?

 

Home Variables and Pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in Pre-primary Pupils

1.6       Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant influence of parental occupation on influence pupils’ academics performance in social studies in pre-primary
  2. There is no significant influence of parental socio-economic status on pupils’ academic performance in social studies in pre-primary in Okobo Local Government Area.
  3. There is no significant influence of Parental level of education on pupils academic performance in social studies in pre-primary in Okobo Local Government Area

1.7  Limitation of the Study

There are number of problems in the course of this study. The greatest being finance which limited the study to specific pre-primary in Okobo Local Government Area. Another constraint was time as the researcher was combining the academic activities with research study which demanded the maximum attentions. Transportation difficulties were another factor which contributes to limit the study

1.8       Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to Home variables and pupils’ academic performance in pre-primary in Okobo Local Government Area and would be inappropriate to draw conclusion in this study elsewhere. Among other variables linked to this study are parental educational background, occupation, and parental socio-economic status were considered in the study. Finally, only ten (10) public pre-primary in Okobo Local Government Area were considered in the study area.

 

1.9       Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined as they are used in this research study.

Home: This refers to the primary social group of the individual responsible for this upbringing and socialization.

Parental educational level: This is defined in the study as the level of education obtained by the parent in the home or whether the parent is literate.

Parental socio-economic status:       This refers to the amount of income a parent receive and class of citizen he belongs which can be help in financing a child’s education.

Socio-economic Status: this refers to the amount of money, materials, goods one possesses.

Academic Performance: Academic performance refers to the level of performance in school, accomplishment or success in school.

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