In-Service Education and Teaching Effectiveness among Primary School Teachers
This study on motivational variables and teachers’ teaching effectiveness in Mathematics in public primary schools. The population for the study was 708 primary school teachers. Using a simple random sampling technique, 100 primary school teachers was selected as sample size for the study. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study. An instrument titled “Teacher’s Motivational Variables and Mathematics Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TMOVMTEQ) was used for data collection. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) at 0.05 level of significant.
Findings of the study revealed that motivation relates with teachers’ teaching effectiveness in primary schools. It was recommended among others that Government should provide conducive learning environment and good working conditions as well as provide adequate resources necessary to enhance teaching effectiveness, and was therefore concluded that teacher needs not only adjustment and regular payment of salary and allowance but the right technology and facilities for effective classroom management.
In-Service Education and Teaching Effectiveness among Primary School Teachers
Table of Content
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Content – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii
Chapter One – Introduction
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems – – – – – – 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 6
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – – 7
1.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – 7
1.7 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.8 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.9 Definition of Terms- – – – – – – 9
Chapter Two – Literature Review
2.1 The Concept of Motivation and Teacher’s Teaching Effectiveness – – – – 10
2.2 Physical Facilities and teachers teaching effectiveness – – 12
2.3 Recognition and Teacher’s Teaching Effectiveness – – 15
- Supervision and Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness – – 17
2.5 Summary of Literature Review- – – – – – 19
Chapter Three – Research Methods
3.1 Area of the Study – – – – – – – 20
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – 22
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – – 22
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – — – – – 23
3.5 Instrumentation – – – – – – – 23
3.6 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – 24
3.7 Administration of the Instrument – – – – – 24
3.8 Scoring of the Instrument – – – – – – 25
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 25
Chapter Four – Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings
4.1 Presentation of Results – – – – – – 26
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – 29
Chapter Five – Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 31
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – 32
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 33
1.1 Background to the Study
In-service education is defined as the training carried out while actually working at a job. It comprises all activities engaged in by professional personnel during their service and is designed to contribute to professional improvement on the job. It is a means of assisting poorly prepared, untrained and inexperienced teachers to improve both academically and professionally (Edem 2007).
There are different types of in-service education programme to prepare teachers for better job performance in the classrooms. In- service education could be formal or informal. The formal type is obtained through attendance at institutions of higher learning and knowledge is acquired through forma teaching and learning for the award of certificates, Diplomas, or Degrees.
Activities of the formal type of in-service education include conferences, consultation services, correspondence courses, demonstrations teaching, exchange teaching, extension courses, summer study, faculty meetings, workshops, orientation programmes, etc. The informal type of in-service is the most common among Etinan as well as Akwa Ibom State. They include, participation in professional association meetings, reading of professional journals, books, news bulletin, and watching educational programmes through the electronic media.
In-service education plays a crucial and pivotal role in improvement or teaching effectiveness, as it is designed for the manpower development of the school system and the educational enterprise as a whole. If teachers are to perform their functions effectively and efficiently, it becomes imperative for them to require training in new skills and modern methodology.
The higher the level of educational attainment by teachers, the higher the level of educational standard in the country. No wonder the National Policy on Education (2014) asserted that no level of education can rise above the quality of its teachers. To meet the growing needs of education in a global economy it becomes imperative to provide sound in-service education for teachers to update their skills, knowledge and experience.
As stated by Adesina (2008), when staffs are given the opportunity to develop, non education graduate will register through in-service training, like Sandwich; Part-time programmes, Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE), induction programmes, ICT training, workshops, conferences, seminars and refresher courses, particularly for nonprofessional teachers employed to teach in basic schools so as to enable them become professionals. In-service training to workers in well-managed organisation is aimed at making the workers to acquire new skills and knowledge, increase their level of productivity and in turn contribute to the attainment of the organizational goals.
Nkang (2002) stressed that personnel administration does not halt it activities at the time the employee starts work. It goes further to concern itself with the density, performance and the need satisfaction of the personnel from the initial employment stage to the time of retirement. The effectiveness of teaching rests principally on the competency of the teacher. The teachers would increase their effectiveness through the opportunities provided by the system to develop their inherent capabilities, update their knowledge and skills in their technical areas. Hence, the need for an organized programmes of in-service education for the educational system personnel.
In-service programme contributes not only to the effectiveness of the attainment of organizational goals but also serves as a potent instrument of motivating teachers and influencing behaviour in the organization. Given this background, the study sought to investigate the relationship between in- service education and teacher’s teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers are crucial inputs of any educational system because they have the command of the knowledge and skills to be imparted to the learners. Hence, the quality of teachers determines to a great extent the quality of teaching and learning outcomes.
It has been observed that the society is fast changing due to technological advancements; but unfortunately many of the trained teachers have not received any other form of education/training after their pre-service training. As a result they find it very difficult to interpret the curriculum properly and are incapacitated in the subject matter; they find it difficult to make use of instructional materials since they lack the methodology of how to present the materials to the learners. This therefore confirms the fact that the initial training every professional teacher has at Teacher Training College, College of Education and the University, is not enough to carry the teacher through the number of years he has to put-in in the teaching service (Esu 2007).
Moreover since the inception of Universal Basic Education in Akwa Ibom State, the government has put in place various development programmes for teachers in order to enhance quality basic education. Such programmes include among others ICT training, seminars, workshops and induction programmes for teachers. However, despite government effort and investment in teacher development programmes, the quality of UBE does not improve to any appreciable level.
Some educators blame this on ineffective management of the programme by those concerns, while others attribute it to the poor attitude of some teachers toward the programme and poor work behaviours. Therefore, it becomes pertinent to pose the question “To what extent does teacher in-service education relate to teachers’ teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area?” This study seeks to provide answer to this question.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between in-service education and teacher’s teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study seeks to:
- examine the relationship between ICT training of teachers and their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
- examine the relationship between teachers participation in Seminars/workshops and their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to the teachers, head of schools, parents and the society at large in the following ways.
- The teachers would be one of the beneficiaries of this study as the findings and recommendations of the study will enable them to appreciate the importance of in-service training program in teaching and learning. Also, teachers, will see this study as an eye opener, in the sense that, it will give them an insight into the appropriate in-service training in the teaching and learning processes at the primary school.
- Head of schools would benefit from this study, as the findings and recommendations of the study will enable them to understand the importance of in-service training on job performance and the role it plays in the teaching/ learning outcomes.
- Parents would benefit from this study because it will enlighten them to know the importance of the in-service training on job performance by their children’s teachers and its effect on their children’s learning outcomes.
- The society will also benefit from the outcomes of this study as it will enable the members of the society to understand the effect of in-service training on teaching and learning at the primary school level of Nigerian educational system.
- Researchers’ both old and new, including students, will see this study as a contact or reference material for their further studies and academic work.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study.
- To what extent does ICT training of teachers relates to their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area?
- To what extent does teachers’ participation in Seminars/ workshops relate to their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
- There is no significant relationship between ICT training for teachers and their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ participation in seminars/workshops and their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The major challenges encountered during the course of the study were shortage of finance to extend the study, and short span for the completion of the study coupled with other academic activities in the school.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited in coverage to public primary school teachers in Etinan Local Government. The investigation centered on the relationship between ICT training of teachers, teachers’ participation in seminars/workshops and their teaching effectiveness in Etinan Local Government Area.
1.9 Definition of Terms
In-Service Education: This can be defined as the relevant courses and activities in which a serving teacher participate in order to upgrade his professional knowledge, skills, and competence in the teaching profession.
Teaching Effectiveness: – This is an act or manner of carrying out teaching.
Teacher: Teacher: It is a professionally trained person for the purpose of imparting knowledge to a learner.