Primary Education Studies Project Topics

Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Basic Science in Primary Schools

Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Basic Science in Primary Schools

 

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to examine Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Basic Science in Primary Schools in Abak Local Government Area. Two specific purposes were posed to investigate the influence of instructional materials used in the teaching and learning of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study employed survey research design in carrying out the study. The population of this study was made up of all the teachers in all public primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

Ten public primary schools were selected to form the sample size for the study. One hundred teachers were drawn using simple random sampling technique. Data obtained were analysed using product moment correlation coefficient statistical method. The result of the findings revealed that chats and models have significant relationship in the effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

 

Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Basic Science in Primary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to pupils in educational process. Instructional materials include items such as kits, textbooks, magazines newspaper, pictures, recording video etc. instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process.

Instructional materials have been defined by various authors. According to Obanya (2009) he viewed them as didactic materials thing which are supposed to make learning and teaching possible. According to Abdullahi (2010), instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could made tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. They are objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2015).

Instructional materials have been observed as a powerful strategy to bring about effective teaching and learning. The importance of quality and adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning can occur through their effective utilization during classroom teaching. Instructional materials here include all the tools that the teachers can use to make the teaching and learning more interesting and memorable.

According to Farombi, (2008), instructional materials include books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology. The priority of all countries, especially the developing ones, is to improve the quality of schools and the achievement of pupils since learning outcomes depend largely on the quality of education being offered. Higher quality education fosters economic growth, social integration and development. Therefore the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning cannot be overemphasis as it is crucial for realization of educational objectives and curriculum implementation.

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For realization of good performance in a school, instructional resources must be put in place and used effectively in classroom practice. Todaro (2012) noted that the formal education system of a nation is the principal institutional mechanism used for developing human skills and knowledge. Education is, therefore, viewed as an indispensable catalyst that strongly influences the development and economic fortunes of a nation and the quality of life of its people. In this context, nations, organizations and individuals spend huge sums on the provision and consumption of education for the citizen.

Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audio-visual. Thus, audio instructional materials refer to those devices that make use of the sense of hearing only, like radio, audio tape recording. Visual instructional materials on the other hand, are those devices that appeal to the sense of sight only such as the chalkboard, chart, slide, and filmstrip.

An audio-visual instructional material however, is a combination of devices which appeal to the sense of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion picture and the computer. Among the instructional materials the classroom teacher uses, the visuals out-numbered the combination of the audio and audio-visual. Instructional materials are the devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting, organized knowledge skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). Teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning.

The used of instructional material can enhance the learning achievement Cronbach (2009), the used of instructional material can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Brown (2015) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows. It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning. They ensure better retention, this making the inaccessible accessible they provide a common experience upon which late learning can be improved. They stimulate and motivate student to learn.

Utilization of instructional material depends on their viability in the school. Teachers often make use of textbooks, charts, models, graphics, realia as well as improvised materials (Awotua-Efebo, 2011). The success in the skill and knowledge acquisition in an instructional situation depends on the suitability of the instructional material, adequacy and effective utilization of the available materials (Olaitan and Agusiobo, 2014). Also, the relevance of instructional materials to the objective of the lesson and the ease of use of the instructional materials are serious considerations in instructional materials utilization to better the learner’s performance.

Whether instructional material are designed as improvised or imported, the most important effect of these materials is to assist in achieving the stated behavioural objectives evaluation is carried at the end of a lesson or programs. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate the influence of instructional materials and the effective teaching of Basic Science in Primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

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1.2     Statement of the Problem

In spite of the desire for technological development, couple with the fact that basic science is a vital subject for technological development and as such, its teaching and learning as well as pupils’ poor academic performance have become a source of concerns to all stakeholders in educational sector of what could cause poor performance of pupils in schools.

It has been observed that pupils complain of being taught principles that seem to be abstraction in nature by their teachers and so they find it difficult to understand what they are taught. The teachers on their own part shift the blame to the government for not providing the necessary instructional resources for the teaching and learning process in schools.

Also, there are complaints by the teachers, parents and educational stakeholders that the instructional strategies used by teachers in teaching of the pupils are not effective as it is mostly abstract to the learners and these have negated pupils’ academic performance. The research therefore sought to find out the relationship between use of instructional materials and the teaching effectiveness in Basic science in primary schools in Abak local Government Area.

Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Basic Science in Primary Schools

 

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructional materials and the effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. determine the relationship between the use of charts and effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.
  2. determine the relationship between the use of models and effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

1.4  Significance of the Study

The study will be of great benefits to many people who will come across it with reference to teachers, school management, the pupils and the educational system at large in the following ways:

  1. It will provide learners with systematic and scientific basis for worth wide functional and productively learning experience and activities naturally leading from abstract to concrete ideas.
  2. It would bring learners into easy and direct contact with an explorations of all processes, materials, events, situations, changes in time, speed and space which otherwise would be inaccessible.
  3. It will help the teacher to arrest and sustain attention present facts and information teaches concepts and principles, guide thinking and include transfer of knowledge.
  4. The study will be of immense benefits to the government, ministry of education, and the educational policy makers and administrators as it will emphasize the important of instructional materials in lesson delivery.
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1.5  Research Questions

The following research questions were posed to guide the study;

  1. What is the relationship between the use of charts and effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area?
  2. What is the relationship between the use of charts and effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area?

1.6  Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study

  1. There is no significant relationship between the use of charts and effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.
  2. There is no significant relationship between the use of models and effective teaching of Basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

 

Instructional Materials and the Effective Teaching of Basic Science in Primary Schools

1.7  Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered some limitation to the scope of the study

Availability of Research Materials: The researcher limited the study to ten schools with availability of instructional materials.

Time: the time frame allocated for the study could not enhance wider courage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Finance: there was dearth of finance on the side of the researcher there by limiting the scope of the study to selected primary schools in the study area.

1.8  Delimitation of the Study

The research work focuses on influence of instructional materials and the effective teaching of basic science in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area. This research work covers only public primary schools in the study area. However, five public primary schools were selected for the study.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials: these are tools or devices used by a teacher to motivate learners and for clarity of abstract concept in a lesson.

Teaching: this is a process of helping a person to learn.

Basic science: this refers to the science of life of living organism

Primary School: this refers to educational institution that is concerned with the foundational teaching and learning process that has its learners between 5- 12 years of age.

Models: is a representation of a system using general rules and concepts

Availability: refers to the condition of being obtainable or accessible at a particular point in time.

Utilization: it is the primary method by which asset performance is measured and business determined

Effectiveness: refers to the maximizing utilization of resources provided.

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