Primary Education Studies Project Topics

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS IN BASIC SCIENCE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS UTILIZATION AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS IN BASIC SCIENCE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

 

Abstract

The research was carried out to investigate instructional materials utilization and teaching effectiveness in Basic Science among primary school teachers. The population o the study comprises all the primary four teachers in primary schools who are currently teaching Basic Science out of which forty Basic Science teachers was selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Three objectives were stated from which three research questions were stated. A questionnaire titled, “Questionnaire on Instructional Materials Utilization and Teaching of Basic Science among Primary School Teachers (QIMUTBSPST)” was used as the instrument for data collection using a survey research design.

Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The result showed that audio-visual, model instructional materials utilization influenced teaching effectiveness in Basic Science among primary school teachers. It also revealed that the durability of instructional materials influenced teaching effectiveness in Basic Science among primary school teachers. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that teachers should use instructional materials always for the teaching of Basic Science.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                 Pages

Title Page              –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i        

Certification           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication             –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii      

Acknowledgements         –        –        –        –        –        –        iv      

Abstract                –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v       

Table of content    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi      

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study          –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem         –        –        –        –        4

1.3     Purpose of the Study                –        –        –        –        5

1.4     Significance of the Study          –        –        –        –        6

1.5     Research Questions                  –        –        –        –        7

1.6     Delimitation of the Study          –        –        –        –        7

1.9     Limitation of the Study              –        –        –        –        7

1.9     Definition of Terms                   –        –        –        –        8

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 2.1    Concept of Instructional Materials                –        –        9

2.2     Influence of Audio-visual Instructional Materials Utilization on Teaching Effectiveness among Teachers     12

2.3     Influence of Models Utilization on Teaching Effectiveness among Teachers in Primary Schools             –        –        14

2.4     Influence of Durability of Instructional Materials on Teaching Effectiveness among Teachers in Primary

Schools                                                        –        –        17

2.5     Summary of Literature Review                     –        –        20

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Area of the Study            –        –        –        –        –        21

3.2     Research Design             –        –        –        –        –        22

3.3     Population of the Study   –        –        –        –        –        22

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique        –        –        –        22

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection            –        –        –        23

3.6     Validation of Instrument                     –        –        –        23

3.7     Administration of Instrument              –        –        –        23

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                     –        –        –        24

 

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

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4.1     Data Presentation / Analysis               –        –        –        25

4.2     Discussion of Findings                        –        –        –        30

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS  AND CONCLUSION

 

5.1     Summary                        –        –        –        –        –        33

5.2     Conclusion                      –        –        –        –        –        33

5.3     Recommendations           –        –        –        –        –        34

References                      –        –        –        –        –        36

Appendix                         –        –        –        –        –        39

 

Instructional Materials Utilization And Teaching Effectiveness In Basic Science Among Primary School Teachers

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

There has been an increasing attempt by educationists and psychologists over the years to look for ways of enhancing educational achievement of pupils, many studies have been carried out to show that among other things, the use of instructional materials enhance pupils’ effectiveness in Basic Science.

Ekanem (2001) has shown that the use of instructional materials assists teachers to make their lesson explicit to learners. These instructional materials can be combined with any other teaching methods to ensure effective learning, pupils tend to remember more of what they see than listening without seeing, hence develop good attitude for the lesson, attitude according to Ojo (2007) is defined as a relatively long lasting organization of a person; belief and behaviours towards other people, situations or objects, or negatively; an attitude has led pupils to admire and study a subject as positive while those that lead pupils to dislike it portray negative attitude (Udom, 2001).

Eneh and Nkang (2001) in postulation theory of cognitive development have shown that pupils in primary schools function of the concrete operational stag of mental development, one of the characteristics of pupils at this stage of development is that, they hardly remember except taught.

In concrete form, it is when learning experience are made in concrete form that pupils can remember what they learn, one way of making learning experience concrete is by using instructional materials.

Obot (2000) showed in a separate study that when instructional materials are used in teaching, motivation of pupils is enhanced by generating participation in the lesson, motivation therefore through the use of suitable instructional materials play an important role in pupils’ learning effectively in Basic Science, it increases the attention and interest as well as little or no learning takes place.

Miller (2003) similarly in teaching science to pupils things that are too far can be brought nearer to them in drawing or photographs, also events and processes which cannot be observed either because they are too fast or too slow can be made clearly observed through the use of instructional materials.

Generally, pupils are excited and eager to learn those concept that would have been difficult for them to understand if

 

instructional materials were not used. Ekong (2003) considered instructional materials as indispensible instructional components that improve the productivity of teachers in their instructional role performance. The role of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process according to Ekong (2003) includes:

  • Making learning experience integrative and interactive
  • Making instructions easy to understand
  • Stimulating pupils and sustaining interest
  • Encouraging pupils’ active participation rather than being passive listeners etc.
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The teachers must make proper use of relevant materials that are suitable for both the learners and the lesson objective, the situation calls for devotion and commitment in planning, selection and delivery of instructions. A well-prepared instructions could be destroyed by non-availability or improper utilization of learning materials by the teachers, according to Boniface (2002) utilization of instructional materials in teaching association with the function of the teachers as the manager of the instructional process is important for the teachers to arrange the mechanics of the presentation and also plan to make the materials meaningful to the pupils, they outlined the utilization

procedures that the teachers should follow and summarize them as previewing the materials, preparing the environment, preparing the audience and finally, presenting the materials, regrettably, instructional materials in teaching in most cases are limited or completely lacking, which lead to effective performance on the part of the teachers.

Again, the few available ones are sometimes not utilized in basic science and learning process to become effectiveness. It is on the basic of these that it becomes necessary to investigate the extent to which instructional materials are utilized by teachers to facilitate pupils’ learning effectiveness in Basic Science in primary schools.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learners in Nigeria for example, experience has shown that spoken words done in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffectively and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. According to Effiong (2014), every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has been mass failure in Basic Science that pose serious problem of science cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional

materials to make the learning practical. On the foregoing scholars like Ekong (2014) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials on teaching and learning according to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we learn, 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80$ of what we experience directly or practice. However, the question here is does the utilization of instructional materials influences teaching learning effectiveness in basic science among primary schools, attempt to find answer to this question and more summarizes the entire problem of these study.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of instructional materials utilization on teaching effectiveness in Basic science among primary school teachers in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area, specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Investigate the influence of audio-visual instructional materials utilization on teaching effectiveness in Basic Science among teachers in primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
  2. Examine the influence of models instructional materials utilization on teaching effectiveness among teachers in primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
  3. Investigate the influence of durability of instructional materials on teaching effectiveness in basic science among teachers in primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
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1.4   Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will make teachers realized that children at primary school age learn easily through the use of instructional materials priority in the primary schools. The findings of this study will give information to all stakeholders in education on the benefit of instructional materials.

The findings of the study will be importance to other researchers by educating her on her relevance of the instructional materials in science teaching and learning. The findings of the study will be useful to the pupils by enabling them acquire greater knowledge, attitude and skill through the use of instructional materials in teaching-learning process in the classroom. The findings of the study will serve as a reference materials to both pupils and teachers in their future researches.

 

Instructional Materials Utilization And Teaching Effectiveness In Basic Science Among Primary School Teachers

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does instructional materials utilization influence teacher’s classroom management in Basic Science class in primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area?
  2. To what extent does instructional materials utilization influence teacher-pupils relationship in Basic Science among teachers in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area?
  3. To what extent does instructional materials utilization influence lessons presentation in Basic Science among teaches in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area?

1.6   Delimitation of the Study

The study also focused on teachers currently teaching in primary four (4) in selected primary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.

 

Instructional Materials Utilization And Teaching Effectiveness In Basic Science Among Primary School Teachers

1.7   Limitation of the Study

This study was limited by a number of factors which include:

  • Financial factor: Financial constraints that influence the study for the researcher hardly got enough money to allow for courage of large area.
  • Time factor: The period allowed for the completion of the study could hardly be enough for a wider and more in-depth research into the problem situation.

1.8   Definition of Terms

Instructional materials: These are all resources or materials like visual, audio, and audio-visual that teachers bring to the classroom or any environment which make learning concrete and stimulating to pupils.

Utilization: this is the primary method which asset performance is measure and business success determined.

Teaching: These are series of conscious or planned activities carried out by a qualified person (teacher) to modify the behavior or effect a change in the learners (pupils).

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