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Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students

Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students



The study was conducted to investigate the hindrances to effective reading among secondary school students. The main objectives were to ascertain the impact of the physical appearance, the physical environment, and the author’s subject matter, adjustment in reading speed as well as the impact of the mental and psychological state of the reader as it affects effective reading. To achieve this objective, research questions were reviewed to guide the study.

A survey research method was adopted for study. The population of the study was drawn from teachers’ in secondary schools in the area. Ten (10) secondary schools were selected and forty (40) teachers’ composing four from each of the ten schools’. Simple random sampling was adopted for the study. A structured questionnaire was adopted as a major instrument for the data collection. While data collected were analyzed using simple percentage methods.

Findings revealed that gender affected reading as other findings from the research showed that adjustment of reading speed by increasing the reading rate leads to better comprehension of the text read. It was also found out that the environment, the authors’ subject matter were also factors that affected effective reading. Reading is effective when conducted under a conducive atmosphere. It was therefore recommended that these factors should be optimized to encourage reading especially considering the massive failure in examinations attributed to poor reading habits.

Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students
Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students

Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students




1.1     Background to the Study

 A vast body of knowledge exits in this world which if explored and utilized, could up lift human status and make life better in the world. This knowledge could be explored by listening to the world, observing the world, imagining about the world is  the best way through which we acquire a large body of knowledge that we require as human beings to lead a useful life on  earth, Ukut (1998).

The idea behind the act of reading was developed out of a desire to translate written or printed symbols into human speech for meaning to be derived. Writing comes out as one of the skills of learning which has supplemented oral communication and so help to overcome the limitation of oral communication.

This is because what is spoken is only temporary and is susceptible to bring lost or being passed into human sub-consciousness oral communication could be misheard and any misheard information could result in usual consequences. Therefore, writing comes to supplement speech by acting as a lasting reservoir for knowledge which could be revealed only through reading.

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Above all spoken communication is flexible permitting all sorts of deviation from the norms. To overcome these limitations writing (and later printing) were developed and to reap the fruits of writing or printing, the art of reading was discovered. Therefore, human beings discover the mysteries behind the written or printed symbols through reading (Ukut 1998). Reading is a concept being a concept it is one of the numerous study skills open to a learner who wants to extend his guest for knowledge beyond listening and observing his environment.

Reading is therefore any system through which human being sort and receive information from written or printed symbols as representative of human language with reading, we translate a writing or printing into human language. so that we obtain meaning from it with reading also, we keep a mental contact with people, place, events, and ideas that are beyond our immediate reach.

Contributing to the definition of reading Alo (1997) sees reading as an essential tool for the acquisition of all kinds of human knowledge and as a means where by information stored in books can be obtained and utilized for a variety of purposes. This definition explains reading as a key which opens all knowledge that have been printed or written down.

The development of the ability to read in the second language is one of the most important responsibilities of the language teacher.  Reading competence is important because it under his success in all areas of learning and most importantly because it is essential to personal enrichment and the development of intelligent citizenship (De Boer, Kaifters, and Miller 1951).

Good reading abilities are as a result of many factors, in other words, there are some factors in the individual that reveals whether or not he is ready to read and comprehend materials (Deboert al 1951). Point out that good reading calls physical and mental health, sound vision and hearing a wide experience background adequate language development, a strong interest in and a purpose for the reading familiarity with printed symbols, and skill in dealing with various types of printed matter, we say the learner is ready to read. It is pertinent to note that it is the whole child when reads and not just his eyes or part of the body.

Considering the uniqueness of effective reading and its impact on the teaching learning process in schools effective among secondary school students in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

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1.2     Statement of the Problem

One of the tasks that confronts the Secondary Schools teachers is how to train readers of varying ages and levels on skills to read faster and more efficiently. The reason being that the student might have been unfortunate to be badly thought about reading skills at the primary level. The wrong way which according to McGregor (1971) is unprepared to read aloud from course  books and textbooks.

Most often times the teacher sets out objectives to ensure that the students acquire the requisite skills and interest in reading but the end result might not be always encouraging.

There is need to emphasize that no matter how hard the student has to read. It is nowhere possible to remember everything that read. However the student most develop good reading habits as this is crucial to the present and future academic  success of the student.

Globally and most especially in the research area, reports a sound verbally and in prints that students tend to be poor in the habit of reading and since reading is essential to all aspects of academic successes these students tend to perform usefully in test activities administered to them in their school and also in external examination such as the senior secondary school examination and the unified tertiary matriculation examination (U.T.M.E).

The poor reading attitude of students is worrisome to the teacher, parents and guardians as these set of people are very much concern about the education of their words). This is why this research  work intends to examine the reasons behind the poor reading culture  with particular references to the impact of the physical state of the reader, adjustment of reading speed, physical environment, author’s subject mater mental and psychological state of the reader on effective reading in Essien Udim Local Government Area.


Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the hindrances to effective reading among Secondary School students in Essien Udim Local Government Area. The study will specifically.

i         Examine the impact of the physical state of the reader on effective reading

ii          Examine the influence of students ability to adjust to reading peed.

iii       Assess the influence of the physical environment on the reader.

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iv       Examine the influence of the author’s subject matter on the reader.

v        Find out the influence of the mental and psychological state of the reader on effective reading in the study Area.

1.4     Significance of the Study

The study is significant because:

1        It will serve as a research manual for future researchers on similar topics.

2        It will serve as a guide to teachers especially on areas concerning testing of students on the importance of reading.

  1. It will also educate student on the importance of reading culture.

4        It will further help government and relevant agencies, especially on issues concerning teachers training on the issue.


1.5     Research Question

In the course of conducting this research the following questions were answered.

i         How does physical state of the reader affect effective reading?

ii        To what extent does adjustment or reading speed affect effective reading?

iii       How does the physical environment of the readers affect effective reading?

iv       How does the author’s subject matter affect reading?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis are proposed to guide the study as follow:

i         There is no significant affect of the physical state of the reader on effective reading

ii       There is no significant effect of adjustment of reading speed on effective reading.

iii      There is no significant impact of the physical environment on effective reading.

iv       There is no significant relationship between author’s subject matter and effective reading.

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

The study is restricted to the hindrances to effecting reading? it will also be limited to selected Secondary Schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area. Therefore findings obtained from the research will not be generalized as it will remain valid only to Essien Udim Local Government Area where the study was conducted.

Hindrances to Effective Reading among Secondary School Students

1.8     limitation of the study                                                       

In the course of conducting the investigation, the researcher was faced certain problems which posed reasonable obstacle  to the success of this great work prominent among this problems present themselves in the form of financial constraints, and time constraints.

1.9     Operation Definition of Teams     

1        Reading: This is any system through which human beings sort and receive information from written or printed symbols as representatives of human language.

2        Communication: This is the process of sending out a message and receiving responses in return.

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