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How does parents level of education affect students academic performance?

How does parents level of education affect students academic performance?





The purpose of this study was to examine parental educational status and academic performance in Economics among secondary school students in Uyo local government area. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study comprising of (6318) economics students in the fourteen (14) public schools; Two hundred (200) students offering Economics in SSII was selected to form a sample size through random sampling technique. Survey design was used for the study.

Questionnaire was the major instrument used for the study.  Simple percentage was used as the method of the data analysis used to calculate the information collected from the students. From the analysis, it was indicated that parental educational status really influences academic performance of students in Economics. Finally, it was recommended that; educated parents should pay more time, interest and attention to the academic affairs of their children.


How does parents level of education affect students academic performance?


Title page  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i      

Certification        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

Dedication –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

Acknowledgements     –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

Abstract     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       v

Table of contents        –               –       –       –       –       vi


1.1    Background of the study     –       –       –       –       1

1.2    Statement of the problem    –       –       –       –       3

1.3    Purpose of the study   –       –       –       –       –       4

1.4    Significance of the study     –       –       –       –       5

1.5    Research questions –  –       –       –       –       –       6

1.6    Limitation of the study –       –       –       –       –       7

1.7    Definition of terms      –       –       –       –       –       8



2.1    Influence of parental education attainment on 

academic performance of students       –       –       9

2.2    Influence of socio economic status (SES) of parents  

on the educational performance of students  –      12

2.3    Influence of parental involvement in the early literacy 

development of the child on students educational performance of students –    –       –       15

2.4    Chapter Summary       –       –       –       –       –       19

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3.1    Area of the study        –       –       –       –       –       20

3.2    Research design         –       –       –       –       –       –       21

3.3    Population of the study       –       –       –       –       21

3.4    Sample and sampling technique   –       –       –       22

3.5    Instrument for data collection       –       –       –       22

3.6    Administration of instrument        –       –       –       23

3.7    Validation/reliability of the Instrument   –       –       24

3.8    Method of Data Analysis      –       –       –       –       24




 4.1    Data Analysis     –       –       –       –       –       –       25

4.2    Discussion of findings –       –       –       –       –       30



5.1    Summary   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       33

5.2    Conclusion         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       34

5.3    Recommendations      –       –       –       –       –       36






1.1   Background of the Study

Many researchers have in recent times conducted that parental educational background has strong relationship with the children’s educational outcomes (Cummings and Davis, 2004; Dodge and Pettit, 2003). A lot of resources have so far been given for the poor performance of students in schools and the most important among the reasons are the negligence of duty of teachers and parents. Parents tend to rely only on teachers with the believe to change or transform their children to academic experts over night, and anything that falls below this expectation makes the teacher conduct unacceptable. 

Few people care to think of other factors responsible for poor performances of students at school (Whitson and Keler, 2004; Sirin, 2005). Unfortunately, these factors are so weighty that it renders the important efforts made by the teachers towards the realization of students’ academic useless.

Many researchers have come to agreement that child’s academic achievement does not only restrict to the school he/she attends but also the education and educational preparation that particular child has received outside the school (Nagin and Tremblay, 2001). It could be from the family, in the community and from the peer group. It has been noticed that the foundational background of any child should be properly lay down; else such particular child will face a lot of difficulties in future (Arnett and Emerging, 2000).

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Some students who are very brilliant were negatively affected by the attitude of their parents by not providing them the necessary materials needed in the school and at home. Students whose parents encourages and provides their educational needs always partake excellently, However, the present study identifies the effect if academic background of  parents on the academic performance of students. 


1.2    Statement of the Problem

The failure rate of students both in the internal and external examinations has been so alarming. The recent examination result have portrayed the emptiness of our students right from the primary stages of education, River State Ministry of Education, 2008; Waecdirect, 2012.

The research findings over the recent years have only considered the students as well as the teachers’ variables, to the causes of students; poor performances at school. However, the researcher has further discovered that the family, through the educational achievements of the parents is quite few on the research. The current study aims at finding out the contributions of parental educational backgrounds to the academic performances of students in Uyo Local Government Area.


How does parents level of education affect students academic performance?

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The followings are the purpose of the study:

  1. To assess the effect of the educational attainment of parents on the students’ academic performance in Economics in Uyo Local Government Area.
  2. To assess the effect of socio-economic status (SES) of parents on the educational performance of Economics students in Uyo Local Government Area.
  3. To assess the effect of the parental involvement in early literacy development of the child, on the educational performance of the students in Economics in Uyo Local Government Area.


1.4   Significance of the Study       

  1. This study shall on completion be of great significance to a number of users like parents, teachers, as well as the entire school community.
  2. To the parents, this study shall educate the parents more to realize their roles to the educational upbringing of the child even from the pre-school age, to the early adolescent age of the child.
  3. This study shall also educate the teachers to realize that at some homes, most parents depend much on them for the children educational needs since the parents themselves are ether uneducated or have no skills to actually educate their children at home. This realization will help the teacher to regard all the students as on equal grounds irrespective of a known family background and put in more skills to teach them.  
  4. The school community will benefit from this book because it will consider the poor nature of most parental backgrounds by building school libraries, employment of approachable student-friendly teachers.
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1.5   Research Questions                                                                                                                                                                                                             The following research questions were raised for the study.

  1. What is the influence of parental educational attainment on the academic performance of students in Economics in Uyo Local Government Area?
  2. What is the influence of socio-economic status (SES) of parents on the educational performance of students in Economics in Uyo Local Government Area?
  3. What is the influence of parental involvement to the early literacy development of the child on the educational performance of students in Economics in Uyo Local Government Area?


1.6   Limitation of the Study

(i)     The process of securing permission from the school heads in the study area, to reach to the respondents was a serious challenge to the researcher.

(ii)    The respondents had the difficulty of disclosing vita information from the family, especially those concerning the financial and educational attainments of their parents. This challenge was surmounted as the researcher assured them of the confidentiality of their information, as well as the unanimity of the respondents.

(iii)    The time interval allotted for the completion of the work was quite limited.


1.7   Definition of Terms

Background: This refers to a person’s social or academic heritage, which could be precious experience or training academically.

Academic: This relates to an achievement which pertains to academic or studies. 

Students: This refers to a person who is registered for an approved course and term of study in an institution.

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