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Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education

Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education

 

 Abstract

The study examines the effect of learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in Physical and Health Education in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. In order to achieve this purpose, three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Literature was reviewed based on the purpose of the study. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of all senior secondary two (SS II) in the study area. The sample sizes of one hundred (100) students were randomly selected for the study. Physical and Health Education Achievement Test (PHEAT) was used for data collection.

The data was analyzed using t-test statistical tool. Results showed that students taught using audio-visual, audio and visual materials significant performed better than those taught without it. Based on the findings and conclusion, it was recommended that government at all level must come together towards the procurement of basic learning resources in Physical and Health Education classrooms.

 

Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education
Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Title page  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

Declaration –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

Certification        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

Dedication –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

Acknowledgements     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       v

Abstract     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       vi

Table of contents        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       vii

 

 CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the study     –       –       –       –       –       1

1.2    Statement of the problem    –       –       –       –       –       6

1.3    Purpose of the study   –       –       –       –       –       –       8

1.4    Research Hypothesis   –       –       –       –       –       –       8

1.5    Significance of the study     –       –       –       –       –       9

1.6    Delimitation of the study      –       –       –       –       –       10

1.7    Limitation of the study –       –       –       –       –       –       10

1.8    Definition of terms      –       –       –       –       –       –       11

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Audio Learning Resources and Academic Performance – 12

2.2    Audio-visual Learning Resources and Academic

        Performance      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       16

2.3    Visual Learning Resources and Academic Performance –  21 

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Design –       –       –       –       –       –       –       24

3.2    Population of the study       –       –       –       –       –       24

3.3    Sample and sampling size    –       –       –       –       –       24

3.4    Instrumentation          –       –       –       –       –       –       25

3.5    Validation of the Instrument         –       –       –       –       –       25

3.6    Scoring      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       26

3.7    Administration of instrument        –       –       –       –       26

 

CHAPTER FOUR – PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND   DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Presentation of Result –       –       –       –       –       –       27

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4.2    Discussion of findings –       –       –       –       –       –       31

                                                                

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       33

5.2    Conclusion         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       34

5.3    Recommendations      –       –       –       –       –       –       34

        References

        Questionnaire

         

Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Man posses the ability to learn. Indeed, it can be said that his survival as a ling being depends on it. Learning enables man to acquire the skills with which he can adapt to and even change his environment. Learning is a continuous process in the sense that it starts from the womb and does not lease or stop until one goes to tomb or grave. Learning does not however occur on its own; it comes through interaction with another person or things. It may be intended or spontaneous, whichever way it comes, there is always a teacher.

Education generally agrees that educational experiences involving the learner actively participating in concrete examples are retained longer than abstract experiences. Learning resource utilization for at teaching and learning is an essential component of the National Policy on Educators. Udoh (2010) pointed out that learning resources material refer to those equipment and materials that a teacher uses to illustrate, emphasize and explain a lesson. Thus, making the lesson clear to the students, these equipment and materials include objects that are familiar to students and can be obtained locally and the sophisticated industrial products which cannot be obtained locally.

Learning resources can be classified into three broad categories viz visual, audio and audio-visual materials.  Kenneth (2009), visual materials are resources that aid learning through appealing to the sense of vision. They comprise illustrated books and self instructional materials, pictures, photographs, chalkboard, bulletin, board, flannel board, models, specimens, class (course textbooks, community, and resource like resource persons museum. 200 etc Ajaha (2005).

Audio materials are resources that aid learning by appealing to the sense of learning, included in this category are radio, language laboratory, audio-tapes tapes recorder and tele-lecture systems (Blair, 2011). Michael, (2006) maintained that audio-visual material are resources that aid learning through the simultaneous stimulation of both the sense of vision and the sense of hearing. They include television, video tape, audio strips, audio-pictorial etc.

The utilization of learning resources by students and teachers in the teaching-learning process add elements of reality by providing such concrete examples. This implies that utilization of learning resources in teaching and learning process enhances proper students understanding hence the needed result of achieving the set goals. Bennet and Pye (2003) have shown that student tend to remember more of what they see than listening without seeing. Secondly put, learning resources utilization enhances effectiveness and efficiency of the learners and teachers, this guaranteeing qualitative output in the instructional process (Etim, 2005).

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Learning resources are very useful in efficient and effective management of curriculum and instruction. The production, adequate and effective use of hearing resources would bring about the expected improvement in the quality of education.

Learning resources explains itself clearly in that in the absence of the teacher, the student can learn if they have access to such learning resources that will present the information required. The utilization of learning resources stimulate and encourages individualized instruction provided that they are under the guidance of trained and motivated teacher. It is also viewed that the utilization of learning resources ensures the use of all the fire senses of the students viz, sight touch, smell, hearing, and tasting by the teacher in the teaching and learning process.

Students are likely to understand and learn Physical and Health Education as concepts and ideas are presented in away familiar to them via the learning resources. For secondary school education to be successful there must be purposely teaching and learning processes enriched with the availability and utilization of learning resources.

It is regrettably that most schools remain without chart, projectors, audio-visual media, printed media and other learning resources. This does not in any way enhance understanding in learning situation. Considering the vital role that learning resources play in learning. The question is what is the level of its utilization by students in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area? This is what the research topic seen to address.

 

Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The phenomenon of pro extended results among Nigerian students as stated by result or from the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) or National Examination Council (NECO) and their inability to understand Physical and Health Education concepts as shown by result has been a source of worry to parents, teachers, government and major stakeholders in the education sector in the country. This has also affected the students who planned going into Physical and Health Education (PHE) as a carrier in Higher Institution.

For instance in 2011, the percentage of students who passed their West African Senior School Examination (WASSCE) with credit in Physical and Health Education (PHE) was below 50% (Okpala, 2015). The same poor performance ratio (50%) were equally recorded by students in the subsequent years of 2012, 2013 and 2014 (Okpala, 2005). This ugly trend has utilized the current worry among stakeholders as to factors responsible for the poor performance of students in Physical and Health Education (PHE).

However, the government has tried in organization of seminar conferences, workshops, symposium to help better the teaching-learning process. Teachers have also been properly motivated and have been teaching using different methods, but all there have not yielded any positive results. As most of the avenue to improve performance in Physical and Health Education (PHE) has been employed are exploit, yet no better result, the researcher now decided to investigate on heavily on resources utilization to see how far this can affect academic performance in Physical and Health Education (PHE) in Okobo Local Government Area.

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1.3   Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of the study is to find out the influence of learning resources utilization on academic performance in Physical and Health Education (PHE) in Okobo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study brought to:

  1. Determine the influence of audio learning resources on academic performance in Physical and Health Education (PHE).
  2. Determine the influence of audio-visual learning resources on students academic performance.
  3. Determine the influence of visual learning resources on academic performance of student in Physical and Health Education (PHE).

 

1.4   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses are were formulated to guide the study:  

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Physical and Health Education (PHE) using audio learning resources and those taught without.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Physical and Health Education (PHE) using visual learning resources and those taught without it.
  3. There is no significant difference in students’ academic achievement taught using audio-visual resources and those taught without it.

 

1.5   Significance of the Study

The study will be significant in the following ways:

  1. It will enable students to understand how best learning resources (visual, audio and audio-visuals) could better their poor performance in Physical and Health Education effectively used and manipulated.
  2. It will equip the school counselor with first hand information when their clients (students, teachers and parents) consult them to proper solutions to the learning outcome.
  3. The study will provide base data for future researchers in the field of Physical and Health Education and related discipline.
  4. It will enable educational administrators and government to re-strategize in their quest for qualitative education and to organize seminars/workshops to show the relationship between learning resources and student’s performance.

 

Learning Resources Utilization And Academic Performance Of Students In Physical And Health Education

1.6   Delimitation of the Study 

The study is delimited to senior secondary three students in selected public secondary school in Okobo Local Government Area.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

The period allotted for the completion of the study was inadequate to allow the researcher to widen the scope of the study.

Also, finance posed a serious construct to the study coupled with other logistics. However, the researcher worked harder to surmount them.

 

1.9   Definition of Terms

Student Performance: This refers to scores obtained by students in Physical and Health Education Test Examination as reflected on their continuous Assessment record.

Learning Resources: There are wide range of equipment and materials at the disposal of the school which when assessed by learners help in fostering, meaningful learning, retention of concepts and effective explanation, demonstration, illustration of the concept.

Utilization: Refers to the act of using something especially for practical purpose.

Relationship: This refers to the way in which two or more things are connected.

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