Project Materials

Learning Strategies and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Literacy

Learning Strategies and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Literacy

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Effective teaching requires flexibility, creativity responsibility in order to provide an instructional environment able to response to the learners’ individual needs. As Tomilinson (2011) puts it, beyond the experimental evidence that pervasive uniformity in teaching fails many learners, there is reason in both theory and research to support a movement towards an instruction attentive to pupils variance manifested in at least three areas:

The pupils readiness, interest and learning profile one of the ongoing challenges the primary teachers are facing is related to matching the teaching strategies with the pupils learning strategies in order to improve the academic performance. Starting from this issue at least two essential questions are asking for an answer could it be that matching the teaching strategies with the pupils learning strategies enhances their academic performance. If the answer is affirmative, how can we identify the most appropriate teaching strategies for each learning strategy. In order to answer the first question, a considerable amount of research has confirmed that congruence between teaching strategies and learning strategies has have a positive impact on the academic performance (Arthurs, 2007; Beck, 2011, Brent, 2009) and attitudes toward learning (Bell 2007).

Despite this evidence, we have to take into account other studies showing that disagreement between teaching strategies and preferred learning strategy would have some beneficial effects on learning outcome (Becker and Cooke, 2010). However, another set of studies revealed that the matches between pupils learning strategies and instructional strategies did not affect the pupils learning performance (Massa and Mayer, 2007). Considering the variety of the extent data, we could only say that thus issue is controversial.

Therefore, our first question is still open and need further investigation. The task concerning the development of a universal recipe for all categories of learners is daunting and contrary to the underlying assumption of individualizing the learning environment. The skillful and competent teacher uses as many methods and techniques as possible because, there is no single method which is regarded as the best for every teaching situation. In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the caliber of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of the teacher.

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According to Oyekan (2014) learning strategies are concerned with what method techniques or approach, individuals or group of teacher select and use in actual classroom situation. Some of the strategies that are applicable to primary schools level of education include: Songs, building blocks, pictures, reading, flash card, rhymes etc. Having critically examined some strategies of learning the question now is, what is the comparative effect of songs, building, blocks, pictures, reading, flash card, rhymes learning strategy on pupils’ academic performance in Literacy in primary school in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Having a sound foundation at the affirmative stage of child to a large extent portends quality primary education and later secondary education. Right from primary school, child’s interest, learning outcome and attitudes are significantly determined by teacher use of appropriate method in lesson delivery. Thus, in view of the significance of teacher as facilitator of learning through use of relevant strategies, the study investigate the impact of rhymes and reading technique on academic performance of  in literacy in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

It would be desirable to examine all of the various learning strategies. Teaching and learning in primary school nowadays require skills in order to cope with rapid technological changes these new skills can provided especially by using a variety of teaching and learning in schools. It is against this backdrop that the study sought to investigate the influence of learning strategies and academic performance of primary school pupils in Literacy in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

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1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to investigate learning strategies and academic performance of primary school pupils in Literacy in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. Specifically, the study will intend in

i           Determine the difference between academic performance of pupils taught literacy using rhymes and academic performance of pupils  taught literacy using question asking skill in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

ii          Determine the difference between academic performance of pupils taught literacy using reading technique and those taught using note-taking in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

 

1.4       Significance of the Study

The study was designed to make information available for teacher, school heads, Government and pupils. The study will be beneficial to the teacher in that they will be able to select appropriate strategies and materials to suit different lessons for effective learning of Literacy by primary school pupils in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. It will help the teacher and the pupils to realize that the understanding of the lesson in Literacy can be highly improved through the right choice of appropriate learning strategies and class activities rather than talk and chalk technique. Also, they will be aware of the fact that pupils interest is enhance if they are properly guided to discover facts and principles by themselves other than supplying them with everything by the teachers.

The teachers and the pupils will notice active participation in class discussion promote learning outcomes than when it is imposed on them. The study will be of immense benefit to government, the ministry of education and the educational policy makers and administrators. This is because the study will provide the necessary tool for the learning and evaluating the problem associated with learning strategies on academic performance in Literacy in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

 

1.5       Research Questions

In order to guide this study, the following research questions were formulated to find the study;

  1. What is the difference between academic performance of pupils taught literacy using rhymes and academic performance of pupils taught literacy using question asking strategies in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
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ii   what is the difference between academic performance of pupils taught literacy using reading technique and those taught using without in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

What is the difference between academic performances of pupils taught literacy using note-taking and those taught without using note-taking in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

 

1.6       Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils taught literacy using rhymes and academic performance of pupils taught literacy without using rhymes in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance of pupils taught literacy using reading technique and those taught without using reading technique in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

iii.        There is no significant difference between academic performance of pupils taught literacy using note-taking and those taught without note-taking in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

1.7       Scope of the Study

This study was designed to examine learning strategies on academic performance of pupils in Literacy in primary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

1.8       Definition of Operational Terms

The following technical terms shall be defined learning strategies, rhymes, reading and primary schools.

Learning: is the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.

Learning strategies: is a technique that assists in the acquisition, manipulation, integration, storage and retrieval of the studied content

Counter: these are tool that children use in their attempts to master literacy skills.

Rhyme:  is a repetition of similar sounding words, occurring at the end of lines in poems or songs.

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