Teaching Methods Affect Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Basic Science
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is the most effective agent of social and personal transformation that leaves relatively formative effects on the learners. The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner through various teaching and learning method (Oigara, 2011). The effectiveness of this teaching and learning process largely depends on the choice of the teacher’s teaching method. Whalen (2012) alludes that effectiveness of a teaching method is reflected in the outcome of the teaching-learning process inform of grades and mean score.
Teaching techniques are the means for helping pupils to study effectively. Teaching method concern the tactics teachers use to meet teaching objectives including instructional organization and techniques, subject matter and the use of teaching tools and materials. Ameh and Dantani (2012) observed that methodology is very vital in any teaching learning situation and the method adopted by the teacher may promote or hinder learning. It may sharpen mental activities which are the bases of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival difficult.
Kimweri (2014) defined teaching methods as a variety of ways of organizing the participants and the type of methods to be used to facilitate learning process which are determined by different factors such as number of students, age and the topic to be taught.
However, Osokoye (2016) aver that teaching methods strategy (ies) or plan that outline the approach that a teacher intends to take order to achieve the desirable objectives. From the above perspective, the delivery or method used in teaching business science ought to be in consonance with the learning objectives which is to lead the pupils from point
A to point B.
According to Essien (2012) teaching strategy is the method used to help pupils learn the desire course contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future, teaching strategies identify the different available learning methods to enable them develop the rights strategies to deal with the target group. Therefore, instructional strategy is the way an instructor chooses to convey information and facilitate learning. This as Unwaneiye (2004) explained, implies that instructional strategy comprises the principles and method used for instruction. The choice of using instruction strategy depends largely on the information or skills that are being taught and it may also be influenced by the learning style, aptitude, skills ability and enthusiasm of the pupils.
Albert (2005) added that the fundamental importance of teaching strategies is to make it easier to implement a variety of teaching methods and techniques. Then, Tebabal (2011) put it that the primary purpose of learning at any level if education is to bring a fundamental change in the learners. He added that the facilitate the process of knowledge transmission; teachers should apply appropriate teaching strategies that best suit specific objectives and learning outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners, widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learner comparatively pupils-centered methods up till date, ensure that the effectiveness of teaching method or pupils learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the field of education research. (Udoh, 2003). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavor to examine the extent to which different teaching strategies enhance growth in pupils learning.
Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority of the pupils is fundamentally linked to application or ineffective teaching strategies by the instructors to impart knowledge to learner. Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching strategies is often reflected by the achievement of learners.
According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is therefore a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in a learners so as to achieve specific outcomes on the basis of this, the instructional strategy used for teaching to be effective; Adunola (2013) maintain that teacher’s need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategy that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered since good teaching among others factors play significant roles in enhancing performance, this study therefore attempted to find out which methods of instruction better facilitate academic performance of primary school pupils in basic science in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The study of basic science in primary schools requires field work in which the practical aspect takes the center stage of its activities. In order to maintain equilibrium in the level of academic achievement and retention of knowledge of the learners in the learning process, teacher are implored employ pluralistic methods in the teaching, so as to help in marrying the hands, head and heart knowledge.
If teaching method adopted in teaching are not adequate or effective, pupils’ academic performance will be poor and this is a problem. Many factors have been blame for the poor academic performance of pupils in primary schools, these factors include, lack of teaching resources, poor study habit in the part of pupils and ill teaching methods adopted by the teachers during instructional delivery.
Adunola (2011) stress that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching methods that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered, it is against this back up that the study seeks to examine the adequacy and effectiveness of teaching methods as correlates of academic performance of primary school pupils in basic science.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to examine how teaching methods affect academic performance of primary school pupils in basic science in Ibeskipo Asutan Local Government Area.
Specifically. The study is designed to:
- Examine the difference in academic performance of primary school pupils taught basic science. Using demonstration technique and those taught using field trip.
- Examine the difference in academic performance of primary school pupils taught basic science using questioning method and those taught using inquiry method.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study would be significance in a number of way;
(i) The finding of this study will help teacher to select among the teaching methods that can bring about effective teaching and learning of basic science at the primary level.
(ii) Finding of the study will help the educational planners to send primary school teachers to various refresher courses on teaching methods.
(iii) The findings will help academicians in theory development to explain academic achievement.
(iv) The findings will be important for educational administrators who want determine.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- What differences exist in the academic performance of primary school pupils taught basic science using demonstration method and those taught using field trip method?
- To what extent does academic performance of primary school pupils differ between those taught basic science using questioning method and those taught using inquiry method?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of primary school pupils taught basic using demonstration method and those taught using field trip.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of primary school pupils taught basic science using questioning method and those taught using inquiry method.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study will be faced with difficulties which include:
- Time factor
- Financial constraint
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to selected primary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study was also delimited to teaching method and academic performance of primary pupils in basic science.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Method: This refers to a plan of action designed to achieve a long term or overall aim.
Academic Performance: This is the level of achievement of student in a particular subject area in schools.
Demonstration method of teaching: It is a method of teaching where the teacher organized information inform of maps. Consisting of concept linked by labeled line to show relationship.
Discussion method of teaching: This refers to a method of teaching where the teacher has a didactic talk with the learner during instructional process.
Lecture method of teaching: Lecture method of teaching refers to the method of teaching where the teacher does all the talking while the learners just sit to listen to the teacher while teaching in the class.
Teaching: Teaching as used in the study refers to the process of delivering instruction to the learners in a pristine way which helps to improve the overall performance of students academically.