Project Topics Early Childhood Education

Family Size and Pupils Academic Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Primary Schools

Family Size and Pupils Academic Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Primary Schools

 

ABSTRACT

 This study examined the influence of family size on pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics among pre-primary schools in Esit Eket Local Government Area. To achieve this aim, two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated in line with the specific objectives of the study to guide and direct the study. An expost factor research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of seven hundred and thirty seven (737) pre-primary two (2) pupils.

A sample size of one hundred (100) pre-primary two (2) pupils was chosen for the study using the simple random sampling method. The main instrument for data collection was Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). Independent t-test statistical technique was used to analyze the null hypotheses. Findings revealed that family size as well as family income has a significance influence in the academic performance of pupils in Mathematics from large and small family size background. Major recommendations made were that, family planning should be encouraged on the number of children parents should have because parents with large number of children may not be able to cater for all of them at equal proportion.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                            

Certification                                                                                         

Dedication                                                                                           

Acknowledgements                                                                              

Abstract                                                                                               

Table of Contents                                                                                

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study                                                           

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                          

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                 

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                           

1.5     Research Questions                                                                   

1.6     Research Hypotheses                                                                

1.7     Delimitation of the Study                                                           

1.8     Limitation of the Study                                                               

1.9     Definition of Terms                                                                    

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     The Concept of Family Size                                                       

2.2     Family Size and Pupils’ Academic Performance                           

2.3     Family Income and Pupils’ Academic Performance                     

2.4     Summary of Literature Review                                                   

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1     Area of the Study                                                                       

3.2     Research Design                                                                        

3.3     Population of the Study                                                              

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique                                               

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection                                                   

3.6     Validation of Instrument                                                            

3.7     Administration of Instrument                                                     

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                                            

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CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Analysis and Results                                                          

4.2     Discussion of Findings                                                               

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND

CONCLUSION

 

5.1     Summary                                                                                   

5.2     Recommendations                                                                      

5.3     Conclusion                                                                                 

5.4     Suggestions for Further Studies                                                 

          References                                                                                 

          Appendices                                                                                

 

Family Size and Pupils Academic Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Primary Schools

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

It is importance that each members of the society belongs to a family group or family order. As the family is the mother of the society. It gives birth to it and to change the society; the family must be changed. It is what happens in the family that reflects in personality behavior of the children. Much of the early learning behaviors attitude takes place at home as the children are being socialized. If one evaluates the social birth order upon the development of individuals, one may not likely find anything with greater birth order than the family.

The psychomotor role of parents within the family needs to be understood by parents. The family is a primary social unit in any society, it is still the source of early stimulation and experience to children and their academic performance. Of course, family size also is a source of early stimulation and experience of pupils in the family and this family size influence their performance academically (Jafry, 2010).

The degree of which women want their children as well as has many they want varies from society to society. A variation which itself can only be explained in terms of their aspects on the society. In some societies, there are religious and economic rewards for having large number of children. In other societies are religious and economic penalties (World Bank, 2006). The adoption of the policy 6-3-3-4 system along with phasing out of grade two teachers in some state of the Federation were seen as the right steps of enhancing the academic performance of pupils and therefore the improvement of the standard of education.

According to Jafry (2010) the fear of God and respect for constituted authorities are lacking among our youths and children today. About 47-67 years, the parents did a lot in the upliftment of moral behaviour of pupils and students even up to the university level. The author reported that an average Nigerian child is poorly fed, houses and environment stimulation of the pupils is poor.

A Nigerian child is exposed to harsh condition earlier in life because of the economy of the country is devastating to the pupils’ physical and mental health. Most families cannot afford to provide basic reading and writing materials. He/she scarcely has his breakfast each time he goes to school and thus becoming truant and cannot achieve academically (Jafry, 2010).

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However, Powell and Steelman (2003) argue that children attainment depends on input of time and money from their parents. The more increase of children in a family the less of both inputs. These inputs are not money along, but other essential things like time, attention, resource, television and so on. However, Booth and Keen (2006) confirmed that children from large families have lower levels of education.

Moreso, the family size as well as birth order also exerts a great influence on the academic performance of pupils in schools. In a family with large number of children, the parents may not be able to cater for the educational needs of all the children. There is bound to be difference in the level of academic performance of members of such family because children of first birth order likely to be given much attention than others in terms of educational materials needs of other members of the family may not be given much attention or totally neglected. This however, presents an area for investigation.

 

Family Size and Pupils Academic Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Primary Schools

 

1.2   Statement of the Problems

Over the years, teachers, parents and researchers have expressed serious concern over the performance of pupils in schools. There have also been prevalent complains that in large families, the middle and last born children have been negatively affected academically. Otherwise, some parents inspite of the government policies on birth order and family planning have refused to see the need of controlling the rate of pregnancy and child bearing. They have failed to recognize the effect of birth order and academic performance that arise from large family which tend to become progressively handicapped as they grow older.

It is a result of the above reasons that this study is conducted on family size and academic performance of pupils’ mathematics of selected pre-primary schools in Esit Eket Local Government Area with a view to suggesting ways by which the academic performance of pupils in Mathematics can be improved regardless of family size.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of family size on pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics among pre-primary schools in Esit Eket Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. compare the level of academic performance of pupils in Mathematics from large and small family size background.
  2. compare the level of academic performance of pupils in Mathematics from high family income and low family income background.
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1.4   Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to teachers, parents and researchers. Its importance to the society in general cannot be over-looked. The family will contribute significantly in the following ways:

  1. It will reveal if family size has an influence on pupils’ academic performance in schools.
  2. It will provide parents or guardians the awareness of their significant roles in the educational upbringing of a child.
  3. The study will give a general picture on the roles of family size on the academic performance of pupils. This will generate desires in parents to plan their families effectively and efficiently so as to build a solid and functional Nigerian society.
  4. Finally, it will serve as a bank and reference point for further research into family size and pupils’ academic performance in schools.

1.5   Research Questions

Based on the purpose of this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. How does the level of academic performance of pupils in Mathematics affect large and small family size background?
  2. To what extent does the level of academic performance of pupils in Mathematics affect high and low family income background?

 

Family Size and Pupils Academic Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Primary Schools

1.6   Research Hypotheses

The understated hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significance difference between the level of academic performance of pupils in Mathematics from large and small family size background.
  2. There is no significance difference between the level of academic performance of pupils in Mathematics from high and low family income background.

 

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the family size and pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics among pre-primary schools in Esit Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.8   Limitation of the Study

However, the successful conduct of this study was faced with some limitations which tend to affect the timely completion of the research work. These limitations were in the areas of finance, insufficient research materials regarding the topic of the research and researcher’s academic work load.

 

Family Size and Pupils Academic Performance in Mathematics among Pre-Primary Schools

1.9   Definition of Terms

The following terms used in the study were conceptualized by the researcher as follows:

Academic Performance: This refers to as child’s achievement at school measured in terms of grades or scores obtained in a test or examination.

Family Size: This refers to the total number of children in the child’s family in addition to the child himself.

Mathematics: It is the study of topic such as quantity (number) structure, space and change etc.

Pupils: It is a child or young person in school or in-charge of a tutor or instructor.

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