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Factors Associated with Massive Failure of Students in Technical Education




The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with massive failure of students in technical education in Ihiala Local Government Area. To achieve the purpose of the study, three research questions were posed; subsequent three null hypotheses were formulated from the research questions to direct the study. Literature was reviewed on the hypotheses directing the study- survey research design was adopted for the study. A total sample of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents were randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the sample random sample random sampling techniques. As a rentable tool for data collection four point questionnaire was the instrument used. It was constructed by the researcher under the supervisors guide that gave it face and content validity.

The questionnaire was successfully administered by the researcher and collected upon completing to test the hypotheses and to ascertain whether to accept or reject them, the independent t test analysis, and Pearson product moment correlation analysis were considered the most appropriate statistical technique employed to test the hypotheses, because of one nature of analysis involved in the hypotheses directing the study. All hypotheses were subjected to testing at 0.05 level of significance with critical values and degree of freedom. The result of the analysis indicates that students related factors, home related factors and school related factors significantly influence academic performance. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.


Factors Associated with Massive Failure of Students in Technical Education




1.1     Background to the study

Education system in Nigeria has been in crisis for many years largely due to the fact that the sector is poorly funded. This has led to shortage supply of learning materials and human resources being experienced in the system. Inadequate qualified teachers, high turnover rate of teachers, shortage of classroom, and poor remuneration of teachers and a host of other problems abound in the education sector. The economic crisis experienced in Nigeria impacted on the education system and had played a major role in the decline of the quality of Education offered in the country (Olabiyi and Abayomi 2010).

Meanwhile, the future of every nation depends largely on the fate of every child that is born into her; most especially those that are privileged to go through the academic walls of the nation starting from the primary level of education to the tertiary institution. Education is an important industry for social, political and economic development and is being influenced by the environment within which it exists (Adediran, Ojomo & Adeyanju, 2015).Hence, national development has been founded by those who are experts in their areas of specialization, and this would not have been imaginable without the instrumentality of the educational system.


The career decision-making process is becoming more perplexing for both adolescents and career guidance/development professionals due to the changing nature of jobs and workplace (Savickas et al., 2009) and the knowledge economy that demands greater intellectual and less physical capacity to stay competitive in the 21st century (Carnevale, Smith, & Strohl, 2013; Powel & Snellman, 2004). Therefore, making a career decision that is thoughtful and based on one’s interests and abilities is important because it will impact career success, family income, and job satisfaction in the future, hence, the importance of technical education cannot be overemphasized.

Technical education is vocational subject which provides students with a process of orientation in production and consumption through experiences in planning (Uwaneige, 2004). Technical education is also an integrated subject comprising woodwork, building technology, automobile technology electrical/electronic, metal technology and technical drawing at their basic level.

The subjects is offered at junior secondary school level as basic technology, it was first introduced  into Nigeria education system (6-3-3-4) in 1982, then a basic technology as a result of the newly defined National policy on education that came into being after the national curriculum conference in September, 1996. Udoh (2003) reported a consistent significant relationship between instructional strategies and teachers performance. Based on the above Farrant (2005) pointed out that teachers method of teaching contribute much to the failure or success of the students and that most of the teachers, were found not motivating students by making the subject real and interesting which results in student mass failure, most often in public examination.

Instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process especially Technical education.  The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

Beyond the direct influences that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an influence upon the academic performance of students.

According to Nakpodia and Urien (2011), the teacher stands out as one the most important factors determining the quality of education and its contributions to national development. At every level, people who go to school look on the teacher for the acquisition of the necessary skills to enable them become what they want to be. Thus, students often look on the personal qualities, their educational qualities and professional competence which are rewarding to the learners. It is on this note that the role of educational administrators in assisting teachers to help students achieve the objective of instructions in their various fields of endeavor stands paramount and a challenge in the 21st century.

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Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2010; Davis, 2011; Johnson, 2011). To complement these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned factors as it influence students performance in Technical education in secondary schools.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

The performance of technical education in secondary schools in Ihiala Local Government Area in recent decades has been rapidly dropping; the trend shows there is speed downfall of performance in technical education and other science subjects especially in secondary schools. And the failures in science subjects may results into shortage of science experts like doctors, engineers, and teachers.

Therefore there is a need to investigate on what are the root causes and factors influences poor performance in technical education, and how to eradicate the problem. Hence this study will assess the perceived causes of poor performance in technical education in senior secondary school certificate examination (SSSCE) in Ihiala Local Government Area.

Factors Associated with Massive Failure of Students in Technical Education


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with massive failure of students in technical education in Ihiala Local Government Area. Specifically, this study seeks to examine:

  1. The relationship between students related factors and the student academic performance
  2. The impact of home related factors on the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school
  3. How school related factors influence the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school

1.4     Research Questions

  1. Is there any relationship between students related factors and the student academic performance in technical education?
  2. To what extent does home related factors influence student performance in secondary school in technical education?
  3. What influence does school related factors has on the academic performance of students in technical education in secondary school?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant relationship between students related factors and the student academic performance in technical education.
  2. There is no significant relationship between home related factors and academic performance of students in technical education.
  3. There is no significant relationship between schools related factors and academic performance of technical education students.
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Factors Associated with Massive Failure of Students in Technical Education

1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.

In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it influence the academic performance of student in secondary school.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on factors associated with massive failure of students in technical education in Ihiala Local Government Area. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State.

1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State as the title suggest.


Factors Associated with Massive Failure of Students in Technical Education

1.10   Definition of Terms

Technical education: technical education is the vocational preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology.

Students related factors: Factors such as individual motivation and interest, mental concentration, participation in extracurricular activities, and self-directedness in learning, as well as students’ sense of satisfaction with learning

Home related factors: The home environment means the family background of the child, which includes all the human and material resources present in the home, that influence child’s living such as the parent’s level of education, occupation, social-economic status and the socializing facilities available in the house.

School related factors: These factors refer to observable instructional behaviour of teachers in the classroom rather than on factors that may explain such behaviour (e.g. teacher beliefs and knowledge and interpersonal competences)

Student: A student can be defined primarily as a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field.

Influence: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.

Academic performance: Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects

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