Science Project Topics

Full project – Family Planning and Birth Control

Full project – Family Planning and Birth Control

 

ABSTRACT

Family Planning and Birth Control is a practice by which couples space the number of years between children they plan to have. It is widely reported that people who do not use any birth control plan may lack access or face barriers to using it. This study is therefore carried out to determine the family planning and birth control and child spacing, obtain the values and norms that influence the knowledge and practice of contraception, among women of reproductive ages in Afaha Nsit with a view to making necessary recommendations that would help improve contraception practices. This cross sectional study was carried out in Akwa Ibom State using a pilot-tested questionnaire. The target population was women of reproductive age group in Afaha Nsit. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the respondent.

Statistical test of significance was performed with Chi-Square test. A total of 1219 consenting respondents participated in the study with a mean age ± SD of 32.37 ± 8.95 years. The main reason given for choice of contraception was reliability, main source of information is through government-owned hospital health personnel, male condom is the most widely used current method while heavy menstrual period is the commonly known side effect. Indications show that educational status, religious factor and economic status influence contraception choices, there is therefore need for more campaign and public enlightenment programs on modern contraception methods, importance, choices and benefits, crucially including the religious leaders, in order to fast track the information spread and further improve the use of modern contraceptive methods.

 

Family Planning and Birth Control

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The place of information in all aspects of human existence is a necessity. Family planning information is an important factor in having a meaningful life both for the individual family and the nation as a whole as it is rightly said that a healthy nation is a wealthy nation. Owusu-Ansah, in (Anunobi, & Udem, 2014) defined information as factual data, ideas, and other knowledge emanating from any society that are identified as being of value, sometimes gathered on a regular basis, organized in some fashion, transmitted to others, and used in some meaningful way. Information they say is power. It has the potential of transforming life.

However, it is only with the right information that you can make an informed decision. The person that have the right information and used it well will always be ahead of the person that does not have the right information. Family planning information is right information every citizen that is of age should have. Birth control is at the center of family planning. Birth control was original name used for family planning.

According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2011) it was first used by a U.S. reformer Margaret Sanger in 1914/15and the term denotes methods of preventing conception, whether involving the male or female, it now comprises all methods of fertility control including abortion and sterilization. While fertility control is a broader term encompassing stimulating or inducing fertility as well as the limitation of births. Family planning or Planned Parenthood generally refers more broadly to policies, programs and services designed to assist people in practicing birth control.

Obinna (2017) reported in Vanguard online that Dr. Jumoke Adekogbaa Reproductive Health and Family Planning Advisor with Engender Health says that Family Planning is the initiation and use of natural or modern contraceptive methods to delay, space or limit future pregnancies and that it gives couples the ability to choose the number and space births of their children. Healthy spacing of pregnancies increases healthy outcomes for mother and baby she added.

The knowledge of family planning does more than enable women and men to control their family size as is popularly held. It guarantees citizens’ health and rights; improves families quality of life and by implication the larger society. The saying that a healthy nation is a wealthy nation will remain a truism for a very long time to come. According to the Federal Government of Nigeria (2014) family planning (FP) is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent maternal, infant, and child mortality. In its blue print document it argued that it can reduce maternal mortality by reducing the number of unintended pregnancies, the number of abortions, and the proportion of births at high risk. It has been estimated that meeting women’s need for modern contraceptives would prevent about one-quarter to one-third of all maternal deaths, saving 140,000 to 150,000 lives per year.

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Family planning, FGN (2014) continues offers a host of additional health, social, and economic benefits; it can help slow the spread of HIV, promote gender equality, reduce poverty, accelerate socioeconomic development, and protect the environment. Control of human fertility has been the desire of most individuals and societies over the years. That is to say that the whole essence of fertility control or family planning is to put the population under control and enhances living condition. In those days families need for power and prosperity necessitated large population which makes them to engage in polygamy, but the desirability of large family population these days is in doubt especially in developing countries like Nigeria and in the face of the persistent economic crisis across the globe. Large population are supposed to be advantage of countries as it were to families in those good old days but the reverse is the case for economic reasons as earlier stated.

As United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2017) puts it, access to safe, voluntary family planning is a human right  and that family planning is central to gender equality and women’s empowerment, also a key factor in reducing poverty. Yet in developing regions, some 214 million women who want to avoid pregnancy are not using safe and effective family planning methods, for reasons ranging from lack of access to information or services, religious belief to lack of support from their partners or communities. This threatens their ability to build a better future for themselves, their families, and their communities. UNFPA further states that Women’s and adolescents’ right to contraceptive information and services is grounded in basic human rights. And that the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) recognized “the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice.”

 

Obinna (2017) noted that much is yet to be desired as far as maternal health is concerned. The Maternal Mortality ratio remains one of the highest in the world at 576 per 100,000 live births. And on the average, 116 women die every day in Nigeria from complications of pregnancy, labour or childbirth. In line with this, the Federal Government of Nigeria (2014) after the 2012 London Summit on family Planning developed a Blue Print -The Nigeria Family Planning Blueprint (Scale-Up Plan October, 2014).

Government stated that proper implementation of the Blueprint would definitely result in the achievement of the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 36 percent by 2018 as against the present CPR of 15 percent, aversion of infant death by 400,000 and 700,000 child deaths and 1.6 million unintended pregnancies will also be averted. This is an achievable task but requires the concerted effort of not only the three tiers of government but that of the communities, civil society organizations, and the organised private sector as they rightly said. Our population is growing at an alarming rateof3.3% per annum FGN (2014). Is this a suggestion that family planning information is not available or adequately available to the citizens? Or that the people are not aware of the idea, its benefits and possible side effects? Or is it that the information is not being put to use or adequate use by the citizens.

Could it also be that the means of conveying the information is not a popular one?2018 achievement target for attainment of the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 36 is just few months away can we be said to be faring well in that regard? Sustained campaigns and crusades to convey the message/information to the populace and see the same accepted and put to use is a must as ignorant in itself has been said to be a disease. The family planning information should not be limited to women antenatal clinics alone because this will definitely exclude men from the campaign, and naturally would yield little or no result. The awareness drive should be for both couples as they are the ones to jointly take the decision of accepting the need for family planning and what method(s) to adopt from available options.

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Several methods exist over the years both traditional and modern. Traditional method includes mostly unorthodox means, while modern methods of contraception include pill, injection, implants, female sterilization, male sterilization, female condom, male condom, intrauterine device, diaphragm, foam/jelly, and emergency contraception..creating awareness, having access and utilization of the information and methods would help in mitigating complications in pregnancy, maternal/mortality death under spaced child births, poverty, illiteracy and population explosion in Akwa Ibom State. It is the intent of this study therefore, to find out the extent of awareness, accessibility, source(s), methods and of course utilization of family planning information to Nigerians in Akwa Ibom State.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Proper family planning has a great impact on the improvement and welfare of any people. Nigerian journey of national development cannot be said to be a successful one. There are high records of out of schoolchildren, high maternal mortality rate, and our population is growing at an alarming rate of3.3% percent per annum according to Prof. Hadiza Shehu Galadanci as reported in Muhammad (2018). Greater percentage of the citizens lives below one dollar per day.

Family planning is supposed to play a major role in checking all these anomalies. This is a serious concern to the world and well-meaning Nigerians as well. Two major summits on family planning have been organized within the last five years and Nigerian government participated very well. After the London Summit of 2012 Nigerian government came up with a Blueprint with the intent to achieve the following by 2018: increase in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 36 percent as against the present CPR of 15 percent; aversion of infant death by 400,000; child death by 700,000;and the aversion of 1.6 million unintended pregnancies.

At the most recent Summit of July 2017, they only made a recommitment of their earlier stand, an indication that they have no result to show from their earlier promise. When will all these promises be achieved? Some stakeholders including the National Population Commission have argued that there is not enough information on family planning. The effectiveness or otherwise of the Federal Ministry of Health’s Family Planning blueprint should not be measured by how well it was articulated but how well it becomes a house hold issue in all nook and crannies of this country. To the best of the knowledge of the researchers there is no available study on this in this part of the country, hence this study intends to fill this gap and create knowledge.

 

Full project – Family Planning and Birth Control

 

1.3       Significance of the study

Family planning offers many benefits, including empowering women to choose how many children they have, better health and survival of mothers and children, a reduction in poverty, and a better educated population. Women leave the work force for various reasons but one of the commonest reasons is pregnancy and, subsequently, child care needs. Research has predicted that there will be 80,000 Malaysian women who will leave the workforce in 2020 due to unintended pregnancies. We know that 40% of all pregnancies are unintended. We also know that women with unintended pregnancies are less prepared mentally, emotionally and financially to go through with the pregnancy. They tend to suffer higher risks of complications, have less antenatal care and are more challenged to meet needs post delivery.

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These consequences are more profound in the lower socioeconomic strata and among the less educated – thus the vicious cycle of the poor getting poorer and sicker. There is a clear link between family planning, women empowerment and human capital development. At its core, family planning allows women to plan when they want to be pregnant and avoid unintended pregnancies.

1.4       Objectives of the study

This study has the following objectives:

(i)To examine the extent of awareness, availability and accessibility of family planning information in Akwa Ibom State.

(ii)To find out whether the target group (married women) in Akwa Ibom State have access to these information

(iii)To identify the kind of family planning information available to in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria;

(iv)To establish the sources of family planning information available in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria;

(v.)To find out the extent of utilization of family planning information in Akwa Ibom State;

(vi.)To identify the challenges militating against use of family planning information in Akwa Ibom State.

1.5       Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions.

1).  What is the knowledge level of female and male married people on the idea of common birth control methods of family planning in Afaha Nsit?

2).  To what extent do male and female married people apply birth control measures for planning family in Afaha Nsit?

3).  What are the problems in the use of birth control methods of family planning by male and female respondents in Afaha Nsit?

4).  What measures can be adopted to enhance family planning among male and female married people in Afaha Nsit?

 

Full project – Family Planning and Birth Control

1.6       Research Hypotheses

The hypotheses that follow were put to direct the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

H01: There is no significant difference in the knowledge level of female and male married people on birth control methods for family planning in Afaha Nsit.

H02: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female married people on the extent to which married people apply birth control measures for family planning in Afaha Nsit.

H03: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female married people on the problems in the use of birth control methods for family planning in Afaha Nsit.

H04: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of female and male married people on methods that can be applied to improve family planning amidst married people in Afaha Nsit

1.6       Scope/Delimitation of Study

The scope of this research work is focused on the family planning and birth control of women in Afaha Nsit as the case study.

 

Full project – Family Planning and Birth Control

1.7       Limitation of the Study

Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without any constraints, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this piece:

  1. Duration of the research work is relatively short.
  2. Stress emanated from other academic activities may prove another constraint.
  3. Fewer materials are available for the work.
  4. Most information is gathered from text book and online.
  5. Shortage of finance.

 

Full project – Family Planning and Birth Control

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

Condom: A condom is a contraceptive method made of very thin rubber sheath that is to be put over a man’s erect penis just before sexual intercourse.

Female condom: Plastic covering inserted into the vagina before sex

Contraception: Contraception is used to prevent pregnancy and some types will also protect you from sexually transmissible infections (STIs).

Family planning: Family planning is defined as having the freedom and responsibility of all the couples and the individuals to decide the number of children they desire and having the knowledge, education and tools for this purpose.

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