Classroom Management and Academic Performance of Students in Social Studies in Secondary Schools
The aim of the study was to examine classroom management and academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Three specific purposes and three research question were formulated to guide the study. Related literature was reviewed and survey research design was adopted for the study. From the population size of 3, 110, JSS2 students in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area, 400 students were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Instrument for data collection was questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The researcher had observed that classroom management has great influence on academic performance of students in social studies.
1.1 Background to the Study
Classroom management is a note worthy factor in students living. Every classroom has it (formal and informal) social structure with their underlying individual characteristics which provides explanation for failure or succeed of instruction.
A good understanding of what relationship exist between the teacher and this instruction on the one hand and the learner on the other hand. Learning takes place in the classroom routinely as an international act through certain degree occur or accidental learning cannot be rule out.
Oliver and Reschly (2017) noted that classroom management is a factor that influence academic performance. Classroom management refers to preventing disruptive behaviors so as to improve academic performance. Academic performance refers to the ability of students to study, remember facts and be able to communicate their knowledge verbally or through writing. Also academic performance refers to performance in test and examinations.
There are methods which are used to measure academic performance. These methods include, examination and continuous assessment test (CATs). However different schools in Ikot Ekpene have different ways of determining academic performance. They also measure the level of academic performance through an academic performance index. Tracking for academic performance is important since it allows of curriculum implementers to note areas of achievement as well as areas of failures and at the same time improve the learning process.
Effective classroom management is determined by teacher qualifications, teacher experience, instructional methods used and methods of assessment (Oliver and Reschly 2017) sound behaviors management establishes an environment that make good institution possible, at the same time effective instructional methods reduces behavior problems through engaging students in meaningful academic tasks (Emmer and Stough, 2017). The inability to effectively manage classroom behavior contributes to low achievement (Donovan and Croos, 2017). To Emmer and sough, 2017), the inability to manage the classroom behavior is as a result of teacher shortage that allow less qualified and less experienced teachers to handle classroom.
Management in the classroom has to done in a systematic and orderly manner. It needs to be well handled properly by the teachers. In classroom learning activities, the role of the teacher as the authority figure in the class is fundamentally important. The teacher is the one who has the responsibility of controlling and evaluating, it depends essentially on teacher variation in the exercise of rights and authority (Dreeben, 2012).
Thus, this study aims at studying classroom management and academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The classroom is the heart of any educational system. No curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evolution, both of which are mainly carried out in the classroom. Most of the classes’ activities take place while students are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. A careful attention to seating arrangement contributes as effectively so any other aspect of classroom management and control to overall success with a class subsequently.
Emmer and stough (2001) observes that the ability of teachers to organize classrooms and mange the behavior of their students is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes. A good classroom environment makes good instruction possible. In addition, although there are other moderating factors associated with students’ classroom behavior and student’s academic performance; teacher qualification, experience of the teacher, discipline, motivation, instructional methods and evaluation are the key factors that determine the level of academic performance of the students. Thus, this study aimed at examining classroom management so as to improve academic performance in social studies.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study is all about classroom management and academic performance of students in social studies in secondary school in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. The researcher also opined that the following could also serve as the specific objectives of the study.
- To identify the factors involved in effective classroom control and disciplines.
- To examine classroom system for effective classroom maintenance.
- To discuss the resources for effective classroom instruction
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study exposes the teacher to the concepts, principles and theories they can apply in the classroom sitting or management to affect changes in learners. Teacher needs every bit of the knowledge and know how to control the classroom and to handle learners in the classroom setting. As such, the finding of this research will be significant in the following aspects.
1 It will stimulate a rethinking in teachers and other educators about teacher education and improvement of teaching and learning process in school.
2 It will provide more insight to both teachers and educators on the performance requirement for teachers.
3 It will guide the teachers on how to manage the class that will improve the academic performance of students.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are formulated to guide this research study.
1 What are the factors that involved in effective classroom control and discipline?
2 Does effective classroom maintenance contribute to students’ academic performance?
3 What are the resources for effective classroom instruction?
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The study is constrained by limited time framed for its execution and completion, finance, logistic problems and for the purpose of arriving at accurate analytical data. These circumstances made the study highly limited as it findings may differ from what may be obtained in other states of Nigeria. So the generation made here may not be generally accepted in some quotas. This has limited the researcher in her generalizations.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was restricted to an investigation on classroom management and academic performance of students in social studies in secondary schools in Ikot Ikpene Local Government Area.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
To show a clear perception of the study, the following terms are defined.
CLASSROOM: A classroom is a room in which classes are held.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: It refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, one task and academic productive during a class.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This is the varying ability in which students performs at schools.
AN ASSESSMENT: Refers to the process to the determining to which extent the learners has acquired knowledge, skills attitudes and values after instruction has taken place.
TEACHING : It refers to the process of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes with a view of expecting change towards a desired behavior or outcome.
LEARNING: It refers to change of behavior after exposure to new ideals.
SOCIAL STUDIES: Social studies is a course of study that deals with human relationship and way society works.